Chapter # 1
Natural And Social
Muhammad Riaz Khan
Government College Of Management
Cell: +923139533123 1
study of the human behavior with in the
Study of structuring, Functioning and performing of
the organization and of the individual and groups within
them”. (it includes: Sociology, Psychology, Management,
Human Resource Management, Social psychology,
anthropology, Economics etc…)
Behaviour is concerned with the study of
what people do in an organisation and how that behaviour
affects the performance of the organisation.”
WHAT IS HUMAN BEHAVIOR??
capacity of mental, physical, emotional, and
social activities experienced during the five stages
of a human being's life i.e.- prenatal, infancy,
childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Includes
the behaviors as dictated by culture, society,
values, morals, ethics, and genetics.
•It includes the following:
Job satisfaction, Stress, Conflict, Job
environment, Organizational structure, group
“Natural sciences as disciplines that deal
only with natural events (i.e. independent and
dependent variables in nature) using scientific
While the employment of scientific methods
is generally regarded as typical but not exclusive
of natural sciences, it is the focus on natural
events that distinguishes natural from social
Positive view:This states that we can study the behavior of
human like natural science through different
experiments i.e. wage/salary experiment
To judge the
This view states that we can not study the
behavior of the human through natural sciences
because people change their behavior time to
time (or situation to situation).
research on the study of human behavior in
the society is called social sciences”.
discipline or branch of science that deals
with the socio-cultural aspects of human
behavior. The social sciences generally include
cultural anthropology, economics, political
science, sociology, and social psychology”.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCES
Social sciences deals with the
intangible values of the human
like Motivation & perception.
In social sciences we can
measure the honesty and
loyalty level of the people by
different technique like
In social sciences we can’t set
fixed & cleared laws, i.e. we
can not declare the whole
society as similar by studying
the behavior of a single
Natural sciences deals with
only tangible values.
In natural sciences we can’t
study the honesty and loyalty
level of the people.
While in natural sciences we
can set fixed and cleared laws.
In social sciences we have
too many variables for the
study of the human
Repetition can not be done
in the social sciences in
respect of experiments.
Different people have
different values, culture,
religion, tradition, attitudes,
ideology etc, that’s why we
can not generalize it.
While in natural sciences
there are not too much
While in natural sciences
we can repeat our
experimental process again
While in natural sciences
we can generalize the
ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH METHODS
Research basically a technique on the basis of which we can collect
Research is a systematic process through which we can collect data
to solve a specific problem.
A systematic investigation, testing and evaluation, designed to
develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.
Watching and listening of specific situation to get information about
that situation is called observation
The act of careful watching and listening, the activity of paying close
attention to someone or something in order to get information.
Type of observation:
Following are the types of observation.
"Obtrusive observation" means you interact with test users, e.g.
by asking questions. With obtrusive observation you learn more
about the usefulness and acceptance of the system. (hidden
microphones or cameras observing behavior)
Participant observation refers to a form of observation in which
the researcher takes on a role in the social situation under
Participant observation is a way of studying and observing
peoples behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs through immersing
yourself in their activities. For example, you can gain knowledge
about how effective salesmen work through participant observation
c) Non participative Observation:
Non-participant observation is a research technique whereby the
researcher watches the subjects of his or her study, with their
knowledge, but without taking an active part in the situation under
A qualitative observation is an observation about essential
attributes of an object. For example, color, shape, texture, etc.
A quantitative observation is an observation that can be described
or measured in concrete numerical quantity. For example, weight,
temperature, height, length, and mass
List of a research or survey questions asked to
respondents, and designed to extract specific
information. It serves four basic purposes: to
(1) collect the appropriate data,
(2) make data comparable to analysis,
(3) minimize bias in formulating and asking question, and
(4) to make questions engaging and varied.
An interview is a conversation between two or more people where
questions are asked by one person (called interviewer) to elicit
facts or statements from the other person (called interviewee).
A formal discussion between a hirer and an applicant or
candidate, in which information is exchanged, with the intention of
establishing the applicant’s suitability for a position.
A formal meeting at which someone is asked questions in order to
find out whether he/she is suitable for a job.
A formal meeting in person, especially one arranged for the
assessment of the qualifications of an applicant.
Types Of Interview
Following are the two major types of interview
The Structured Interview is a
data-gathering methodology that
involves a standard set of
questions asked in the same
manner and order. This method
usually results in a higher
response rate. This is also used
in recruitment to screen job
Unstructured interviews are the
opposite to structured
interviews are more like an
everyday conversation. They
tend to be more informal, open
ended, flexible and free flowing.
Questions are not pre-set,
although there are usually
certain topics that the
researchers wish to cover. This
gives the interview some
structure and direction.
analysis is a social research method
and is an important research tool in its own right.
Documentary work involves reading lots of
written material (it helps to scan the documents
onto a computer and use a qualitative analysis
package). A document is something that we can
read and which relates to some aspect of the
social world. Official documents are intended to
be read as objective statements of fact but they
are themselves socially produced.
ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH DESIGN
“A Research Design is a strategy or overall approach for
solving a research question or problem”.
Following are three main types of research design.
Experiments are tool which used to measure the effect
of one variable on another. For example we want to study
the effect of salary or wages on employees or workers
performance. For experimental purpose we increase the
remuneration of the employees. As a result, we see the
improvement in the performance of the employees.
b) Case Studies:
The detailed investigation of individuals, groups, or
departments in an organization, or a whole organization is
called Case Studied. In Case Studies the researcher
establishes a relationship between causes and effect in past
occurred events and also record the time sequence for
those past events. Case Studies have been widely used in
organizational research. Case Studies of those
organizations that have introduce valuable investigations in
technology, organization design, and in human resource
policies are very helpful for other organizations.
It is the most popular social science research method,
and tends to be equated in the public mind with social
research. Surveys can be based on interview, questionnaire,
observation or document collection and analysis methods