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Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
Organization behavior
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Organization behavior

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A brief discussion about Organizational behavior. Specially for M.Com(final) students.

A brief discussion about Organizational behavior. Specially for M.Com(final) students.

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  • 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Chapter # 1 Natural And Social Sciences Prepared By: Muhammad Riaz Khan M.Com (Final) Government College Of Management Sciences Peshawar Cell: +923139533123 1
  • 2. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Definition: “The study of the human behavior with in the Organization”. “The Study of structuring, Functioning and performing of the organization and of the individual and groups within them”. (it includes: Sociology, Psychology, Management, Human Resource Management, Social psychology, anthropology, Economics etc…) “Organisation Behaviour is concerned with the study of what people do in an organisation and how that behaviour affects the performance of the organisation.” 2
  • 3. WHAT IS HUMAN BEHAVIOR?? •The capacity of mental, physical, emotional, and social activities experienced during the five stages of a human being's life i.e.- prenatal, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Includes the behaviors as dictated by culture, society, values, morals, ethics, and genetics. •It includes the following: Job satisfaction, Stress, Conflict, Job environment, Organizational structure, group etc… 3
  • 4. NATURAL SCIENCE Definition: “Natural sciences as disciplines that deal only with natural events (i.e. independent and dependent variables in nature) using scientific methods“. While the employment of scientific methods is generally regarded as typical but not exclusive of natural sciences, it is the focus on natural events that distinguishes natural from social science. 4
  • 5. NATURAL SCIENCE  a): Positive view:This states that we can study the behavior of human like natural science through different experiments i.e. wage/salary experiment etc. Apply different Wage levels High To judge the Moderate Behavior of Low Employees 5
  • 6. NATURAL SCIENCE  b): Phenomenological view: This view states that we can not study the behavior of the human through natural sciences because people change their behavior time to time (or situation to situation). 6
  • 7. SOCIAL SCIENCES  “The research on the study of human behavior in the society is called social sciences”.  “Any discipline or branch of science that deals with the socio-cultural aspects of human behavior. The social sciences generally include cultural anthropology, economics, political science, sociology, and social psychology”. 7
  • 8. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCES SOCIAL SCIENCES    Social sciences deals with the intangible values of the human like Motivation & perception. In social sciences we can measure the honesty and loyalty level of the people by different technique like comparison, performance appraisal etc. In social sciences we can’t set fixed & cleared laws, i.e. we can not declare the whole society as similar by studying the behavior of a single person. NATURAL SCIENCES  Natural sciences deals with only tangible values.  In natural sciences we can’t study the honesty and loyalty level of the people.  While in natural sciences we can set fixed and cleared laws. 8
  • 9. Natural Sciences Social Sciences In social sciences we have too many variables for the study of the human behavior.  Repetition can not be done in the social sciences in respect of experiments.  Different people have different values, culture, religion, tradition, attitudes, ideology etc, that’s why we can not generalize it.   While in natural sciences there are not too much variables.  While in natural sciences we can repeat our experimental process again and again.  While in natural sciences we can generalize the experiments. 9
  • 10. ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH METHODS Research:    Research basically a technique on the basis of which we can collect data. Research is a systematic process through which we can collect data to solve a specific problem. A systematic investigation, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge. Research Methods:     Observation Questionnaire Interview Documentation analysis 10
  • 11. OBSERVATION   Watching and listening of specific situation to get information about that situation is called observation The act of careful watching and listening, the activity of paying close attention to someone or something in order to get information. Type of observation: Following are the types of observation. a) Obtrusive Observation: "Obtrusive observation" means you interact with test users, e.g. by asking questions. With obtrusive observation you learn more about the usefulness and acceptance of the system. (hidden microphones or cameras observing behavior) b) Participative Observation: Participant observation refers to a form of observation in which the researcher takes on a role in the social situation under observation. OR 11
  • 12. Participant observation is a way of studying and observing peoples behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs through immersing yourself in their activities. For example, you can gain knowledge about how effective salesmen work through participant observation c) Non participative Observation: Non-participant observation is a research technique whereby the researcher watches the subjects of his or her study, with their knowledge, but without taking an active part in the situation under scrutiny.. d) Qualitative Observation: A qualitative observation is an observation about essential attributes of an object. For example, color, shape, texture, etc. e) Quantitative Observation: A quantitative observation is an observation that can be described or measured in concrete numerical quantity. For example, weight, temperature, height, length, and mass 12
  • 13. QUESTIONNAIRE     List of a research or survey questions asked to respondents, and designed to extract specific information. It serves four basic purposes: to (1) collect the appropriate data, (2) make data comparable to analysis, (3) minimize bias in formulating and asking question, and (4) to make questions engaging and varied. 13
  • 14. INTERVIEW i. An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by one person (called interviewer) to elicit facts or statements from the other person (called interviewee). ii. A formal discussion between a hirer and an applicant or candidate, in which information is exchanged, with the intention of establishing the applicant’s suitability for a position. iii. A formal meeting at which someone is asked questions in order to find out whether he/she is suitable for a job. iv. A formal meeting in person, especially one arranged for the assessment of the qualifications of an applicant. 14
  • 15. Types Of Interview Following are the two major types of interview Structured Interviews Unstructured Interviews The Structured Interview is a data-gathering methodology that involves a standard set of questions asked in the same manner and order. This method usually results in a higher response rate. This is also used in recruitment to screen job candidates. Unstructured interviews are the opposite to structured interviews. Unstructured interviews are more like an everyday conversation. They tend to be more informal, open ended, flexible and free flowing. Questions are not pre-set, although there are usually certain topics that the researchers wish to cover. This gives the interview some structure and direction. 15
  • 16. DOCUMENT ANALYSIS  Document analysis is a social research method and is an important research tool in its own right. Documentary work involves reading lots of written material (it helps to scan the documents onto a computer and use a qualitative analysis package). A document is something that we can read and which relates to some aspect of the social world. Official documents are intended to be read as objective statements of fact but they are themselves socially produced. 16
  • 17. ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH DESIGN “A Research Design is a strategy or overall approach for solving a research question or problem”. Following are three main types of research design. Experiments. Case studies Surveys a) Experiments: Experiments are tool which used to measure the effect of one variable on another. For example we want to study the effect of salary or wages on employees or workers performance. For experimental purpose we increase the remuneration of the employees. As a result, we see the improvement in the performance of the employees. 17
  • 18. b) Case Studies: The detailed investigation of individuals, groups, or departments in an organization, or a whole organization is called Case Studied. In Case Studies the researcher establishes a relationship between causes and effect in past occurred events and also record the time sequence for those past events. Case Studies have been widely used in organizational research. Case Studies of those organizations that have introduce valuable investigations in technology, organization design, and in human resource policies are very helpful for other organizations. c) Surveys: It is the most popular social science research method, and tends to be equated in the public mind with social research. Surveys can be based on interview, questionnaire, observation or document collection and analysis methods 18

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