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Biology - Invertebrates
 

Biology - Invertebrates

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    Biology - Invertebrates Biology - Invertebrates Presentation Transcript

    • THE ANIMAL KINGDOM
    •  
    • Characteristics of Animals
    • Basic Characteristics
      • Eukaryotic
      • Multicellular
        • Cell specialization?
      • Heterotrophic
        • Move to food vs. catch food
      • No cell walls
        • Cell mobility
      • Locomotion
    • Invertebrates
      • 34 phyla
        • We’ll cover about eleven
      • No backbone
      • Land? Small (no support)
      • Ocean? Small or large
      • Largest structure on the planet built by organisms?
    • Vertebrates
      • 1 phyla
      • Internal skeleton
      • Cranium
      • Backbone
      • Nerve chord
      • Larger size
    • Animal Behaviors
      • Feeding
      • Respiration
      • Circulation
      • Growth
      • Excretion
      • Response
      • Reproduction
    • Animal Body Systems
    • Support
      • Provides framework for movement
      • Hydrostatic skeleton
      • Exoskeleton
      • Endoskeleton
    • Digestion and Excretion
      • Extracts energy
      • None in single-celled organisms
      • Gastrovascular cavity (one opening)
      • Digestive tract (two openings)
      • Excretion must remove wastes without wasting resources
    • Nervous System
      • Carries information; coordinates behaviors
      • Nerve net
      • Ganglia
      • Brain
      • Special sensory cells/organs
    • Respiration and Circulation
      • Lungs, gills, etc.
      • Larger organisms require circulatory systems
      • Open and closed circulatory systems
    • Reproduction
      • Asexual
        • Examples: budding, new limbs, etc.
      • Sexual
        • Union of gametes produced in sex organs
      • Some organisms use both
    • Evolutionary Trends
    • Directional Terminology
      • Anterior / Posterior
      • Dorsal / Ventral
      • Lateral
      • Proximal / Distal
    • Cells and Tissues
      • Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ Systems  Organisms  Populations
      • Tissues: groups of similarly-specialized cells
    • Symmetry
      • No symmetry
      • Radial Symmetry
      • Pentamerous Symmetry
      • Bilateral Symmetry
    • Bilateral Symmetry
    • Cephalization
      • Anterior grouping of nerves and sensory structures
    • Body Segmentation
      • Repeating, similar units
      • In most complex animals, segmentation only appears during early development
      • Evolutionary benefits
      • Most segments serve a specific purpose
      • Mobility and flexibility
      • Zygote – union of sperm/egg
      • Cleavage – division of zygote cells
      • Blastula – hollow ball of embryonic cells
      • Blastopore – “pocket” that forms in cells
      Embryonic Development
    • Embryonic Development
      • Gut develops in one of two ways:
      • Protostomes
      • Deuterostomes
    • Complex Animals
      • Cell specialization
      • Cephalization
      • Bilateral Symmetry
      • Segementation
      • Deuterostomes
    • Invertebrates
    • Invertebrates
    • What to Remember About Each Phylum
      • Symmetry?
      • Cephalization?
      • Nervous, circulatory, skeletal, digestive, and other systems
      • Specific characteristics
      • Examples
    • Porifera
      • “ sponges”
      • Feed, excrete and undergo respiration by passing water through their bodies
      • Choanocytes
      • Osculum
    • Porifera
      • Symmetry?
      • No nervous system
      • Size: ranges from centimeters to meters
      • Can reproduce sexually or asexually (budding)
      • Most are hermaphroditic
    • Porifera
      • Cells not organized into tissues
      • 5000~9000 species alive
      • Classified according to their skeleton (of spicules or spongin)
    • Porifera
    • Porifera
      • Can live up to 5 miles underwater
      • Mutualistic relationships with other organisms
      • Can be huge or tiny
    • Brainstorm…
      • Four to five reasons why sponges should be considered animals…
      • Four to five reasons why sponges should NOT be considered animals…
    • Cnidaria
      • jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, corals
      • Soft
      • Carnivorous
      • Radial symmetry
      • Gastrovascular cavity (one opening)
    • Cnidaria
      • Two possible body forms:
        • Medusa (free-floating, sexually reproducing)
        • Polyp (sedentary, asexual)
      • Two tissue layers (epidermis and gastrodermis) with jelly-like mesoglea in-between
    • Cnidaria
      • Stinging cells called cnidocytes
      • Cnidocytes contain nematocysts, poison-filled stingers
      • Hydrostatic skeleton
      • Nerve Net
      • Movement by muscular contraction
    • Cnidaria
      • Scyphozoans (Jellyfish)
      • Anthozoans (Corals and Anemones)
        • Mutualistic relationship with algae
        • Coral bleaching
    • Flatworms Phylum Platyhelminthes
    • Platyhelminthes
      • Soft, flattened worms
      • Internal organs
      • Bilateral symmetry
      • Cephalization
      • Only body cavity is digestive cavity
      • Muscle tissues
    • Platyhelminthes
      • Feeding: carnivores, scavengers, parasites
      • Mouth found on underside
      • Invert pharynx to feed
      • Exception: Tapeworms absorb nutrients through the body wall
      • No need for circulatory system
    • Platyhelminthes
    • Platyhelminthes
      • Much more complex nervous system than Cnidaria
      • More advanced reproductive system
      • Planaria are “cross-eyed” flatworms that live in nearby streams
      • Eyespots sense light
    • Platyhelminthes
      • Turbellarians (marine predators inc. Planaria)
      • Tapeworms (parasitic)
      • Flukes (parasitic)
    • Platyhelminthes
      • Example: Schistosoma
        • Cause schistosomiasis (second most devastating parasitic disease – 200,000,000 infected)
        • Larvae bore through skin and mature
        • Females lay eggs in blood vessals
        • Eggs block blood vessals, damaging organs
        • Eggs deposited in feces
        • Larvae infect snail and reproduce asexually
    • Roundworms Phylum Nematoda
    • Nematoda
      • Two openings – mouth and anus
      • Simplest animals with coelom (actually a pseudocoelom), allowing better coordination of muscles
      • Some carnivorous, some are detritivores
    • Nematoda
      • Separate sexes
      • Internal fluid acts as a simple circulatory system
    • Nematoda
      • Although less common than free-living nematodes, some are parasitic and cause diseases in humans
    • Segmented Worms Phylum Annelida
    • Annelida
      • 70% live in water
      • Includes most common earthworms and leeches
      • Segmented: many organs repeat in each segment
      • True coelom
      • Setae
    • Annelida
      • Many types of feeding: filter feeders, carnivores, parasites
      • Closed circulatory system with hearts and blood vessels
      • On land, annelids breathe through their skin, like other worms
    • Annelida
      • Complex gut
      • Ganglia (primitive brain) and nerve chord
    • Annelida
      • Importance:
        • Leeches once used to treat medical conditions
        • Leeches can prevent swelling after surgery.
        • Earthworms help organic matter decompose and aerate soil.
    • Mollusks Phylum Mollusca
    • Phylum Mollusca
    • Characteristics of Mollusks
      • Coelom!
      • Bilateral symmetry
      • Soft-bodied
      • Shell (internal or external)
      • Free-swimming trochophore larvae (annelids too)
    • Bodies of Mollusks
      • Foot (muscular, used to move or capture prey)
      • Mantle (covers body like a cloak)
      • Shell (created from glands in mantle)
      • Visceral Mass (contains organs)
    • Kinds of Mollusks
      • snails, slugs, nudibranchs, clams, oysters, mussels, scallops, squids, octopi, cuttlefishes
    • Behavior of Mollusks
      • Feeding:
        • Filter feeders (bivalves)
        • Carnivores (cephalopods)
        • Herbivores (gastropods)
      • Toothed organ called RADULA used to scrape substrate or attack prey
      • Full digestive tract with complex organs
    • Behavior of Mollusks
      • Nephridia = small tube that retains needed materials
      • 3-chambered heart
      • Open circulatory system (except for cephalopods)
    • Behavior of Mollusks
      • Gills located in mantle cavity
      • Thin membrane of terrestrial snails allows oxygen to pass across
        • Must be moist!
      • Some aquatic mollusks exchange gases across skin
    • Behavior of Mollusks
      • External fertilization (aquatic) or internal fertilization (terrestrial)
      • Trochophore larvae drifts through water using cilia
      • Some use eggs
    • Mollusk Diversity
      • 2 nd -most abundant phylum
      • Body plan similar but rearranged
      • Adaptations to foot and shell
    • Class Gastropoda
      • Snails, slugs, nudibranchs
      • Sizes to 1 m
      • Tentacles with eyes
      • Foot adapted for locomotion
      • Mucus secretions
    • Class Cephalopoda
      • squids, octopi, cuttlefishes
      • Tentacles with suction cups or hooks
      • Most have no shell
      • Complex nervous system; highly-developed brain
      • Color vision
      • Siphon – hollow tube for expelling sea water (locomotion)
    • Class Bivalvia
      • Clams, scallops
      • Two-part, hinged shell
      • Sessile
      • Flattened body
      • Foot used to dig
      • Pearls
    • Arthropods Phylum Arthropoda
    • Kinds of Arthropods
      • crabs, shrimps, lobsters, barnacles, horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks, scorpions, bees, wasps, ants, caterpillars, butterflies, beetles, flies, gnats, cicadas, pillbugs, centipedes, millipedes
    • Ecology of Arthropods
      • 73% OF ALL LIVING SPECIES ARE INSECTS (compared to 4% vertebrates)
      • Which adaptations allowed insects to easily colonize land?
        • Transportation
        • Water loss prevention
        • Protection
    • Evolution of Arthropods
      • Over time, arthropods evolved fewer body segments and specialized appendages
      • Trilobite – marine arthropod ancestor
    • Arthropod Characteristics
      • Segmented Body
        • Individual body segments during larval stage
        • Head, thorax, (or cephalothorax) and abdomen
      • Jointed Appendages
        • Walking legs, antennae, mouth parts
    • Arthropod Characteristics
      • Exoskeleton of chitin
        • Carbohydrate
        • Protection / water loss
        • Thickness varies
        • Unlike mollusk shells, exoskeletons do not grow (must be molted)
      • Compound Eyes
    • Arthropod Body Systems
      • Respiration
        • Spiracles can be closed (water loss)
        • System of tubes called trachea
        • Book lungs/gills
      • Open circulatory system
    • Arthropod Body Systems
      • Varied mouthparts for eating (fly, beetle, mosquito)
      • Full gut with digestive structures
      • Excretion
        • Malphigian tubules extract water and useful particles before waste is excreted
      • Internal fertilization and eggs (water loss)
    • Classification of Arthropods
      • Crustacea
      • Chelicerata
      • Hexapoda
      • Myriapoda
    • Chelicerates
      • Spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, mites
      • Specialized appendages for feeding:
        • Chelicerae – fangs/pincers
        • Pedipalps – for grabbing prey
      • Additionally, 4 pair of walking legs
    • Celicerates
      • Toxins and enzymes used to kill/liquefy food
      • Spiders have spinnerets, appendages that secrete silk or adhesive
      • Scorpions have segmented abdomen with a stinger
    • Chelicerates
      • Horseshoe crabs  NOT CRABS
      • (They have chelicerae and pedipalps!)
    • Crustaceans
      • Water fleas, barnacles, pill bugs, shrimp, crabs, lobsters
      • Mandibles for feeding; two pair of antennae
      • Carapace
      • Mostly aquatic
    • Crustaceans
      • Krill are important in food chains
      • Barnacles are sessile (larvae are not) and feathery legs filter food into mouth
    • Crustaceans
      • Decapods (crabs, shrimp) have chelipeds to grab food
      • Swimmerets used in swimming and reproduction
    • Hexapods (Insects)
      • 3 segments
      • 3 pair of legs
      • 0, 1, or 2 pair of wings
      • Varied mouthparts with mandibles
    • Hexapods
      • Wings of chitin and strong muscles in exoskeleton
    • Hexapods
      • Metamorphosis
        • Complete: egg  larva  pupa  adult
        • Incomplete: egg  nymph  adult
      • Advantages?
    • Myriapods
      • Millipedes and centipedes – highly segmented
      • Up to 200-300 legs!
    • Echinoderms Phylum Echinodermata
    • Characteristics of Echinoderms
      • Internal (endo)skeleton
      • Water vascular system and tube feet
      • Often have pentamerous symmetry
      • Types: sea urchins, sand dollars, sea stars, brittle stars, sea cucumbers
    •  
    • Echinoderms
      • Endoskeleton plates called ossicles
      • Spines project outward
      • No head/brain
      • Nerve ring controls arms
    • Behavior of Echinoderms
      • Water vascular system functions in feeding, circulation, respiration, and movement
      • Tube feet (suction cups) used to move or grab
      • Sea stars can pry open clams and molluscs
    • Echinoderms – Tube Feet
    • Echinoderms
      • Coelom functions as circulatory system
      • Respiration across skin
    • Phylum Chordata