AP Biology - Charles Darwin
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AP Biology - Charles Darwin

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    AP Biology - Charles Darwin AP Biology - Charles Darwin Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Do you recognize these men?
    • The True Story of the Theory of Evolution Or…
    • Fitzroy, Fickle Fuegians, and Funny Feathered Finches
      • “ Nothing in biology makes sense, except in the light of evolution.”
      • -Theodore Dobzhansky
    • Evolution, Pre-Darwin
      • Beginnings in Ancient Greece
      • Species are changeable … Variation occurs!
      • Selective breeding utilized already
      • “ Artificial Selection”
      • Lamarck’s Theory of Acquired Characteristics
    • Thomas Malthus
      • Malthus: An Essay on The Principles of Populations (1798)
      • Populations grow exponentially while food supply grows arithmetically.
      • Eventually population will outgrow food supply.
      • What keeps a population in check? War, pestilence, famine, competition, etc.
    • Charles Lyell
      • Principles of Geology (1830)
      • “ The present is the key to the past.”
      • Geologic change is the steady accumulation of tiny changes over a lengthy period of time.
    • Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
      • 1744-1829
      • 1. Individuals lose characteristics they do not require (or use) and develop characteristics that are useful
      • 2. Individuals inherit the traits of their ancestors.
    • Charles Robert Darwin
      • Wealthy, upper-class
      • Father, Robert, was anti-evolutionist
      • Grandfather, Erasmus, was pro-evolutionist and gifted debater
    • The HMS Beagle
      • May 22, 1826
      • Captain Pringle Stokes
      • Mission: survey coast of southern South America
    •  
    • Second Voyage of the Beagle
      • Stokes – suicide
      • Robert Fitzroy becomes captain
      • Boat stolen
      • Fuegians captured as hostages, then returned to England
    • The Beagle’s Second Voyage
      • Darwin – captain’s companion
      • Fitzroy and Darwin – devoted observers of the natural world
      • IMPORTANT – Darwin did not SET OUT to discover natural selection
    • Darwin’s Finches
      • Galapagos islands (Pacific Ocean)
      • Finches uniquely related to the individual islands
      • HYPOTHESIS: Modification of original group of finches that colonized islands
    • Megatherium
    •  
    • Evolution, Post-Darwin
      • Darwin writes – 1840s and 1850s
      • Wallace sends his manuscript – 1858
      • Mendel experiments – 1850s and 1860s
      • Around 1900, Mendel’s papers were “re-discovered”, as many scientists attempted to merge the two theories.
      Alfred Russell Wallace
    • Premises of Natural Selection
      • Populations overproduce.
      • Resources are limited, so competition ensues.
      • Genetic variations directly impact the ability of organisms to survive.
    • Premises of Natural Selection
      • Organisms with beneficial differences will have a better chance of survival.
      • Surviving individuals pass their traits onto future generations.
      • This results in a slow change in populations over time.
    • Natural Selection
      • process by which individual organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce
      • IMPORTANT – Individuals do not evolve. Populations evolve.
    • KEY DEFINITIONS
      • Population: all members of a species in one area
      • Species: Group of organisms that can produce fertile offspring
      • Variation: slight differences among organisms, often caused through genetic mutations
    • KEY DEFINITIONS
      • Adaptation: Trait that affords organism a better chance of survival
      • Evolution: Gradual change in a species over time***
      • Natural Selection: One mechanism through which evolution occurs
    • Darwin’s Mechanisms for Evolution
      • Natural Selection
      • Sexual Selection:
      • What would cause “nature” to select for such a ridiculous tail on this peacock?
    •