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Digital Cameras Tutorial



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  • 1. Participation in Occupation 1 Technology BT230001 Tutorial Two: Digital Cameras
  • 2. Todays Content
    • Looking at digital camera and how we use them
    • Ethical considerations
    • Cameras in practice
    • Capturing photos
    • Opening a Flickr account
  • 3. The types of digital image capture devices we use today
    • Video cameras (professional, camcorders, webcams)
    • Live preview digital cameras
    • Laptops
    • Hand helds
    • Camera phones
  • 4. Digital Camera
    • A digital camera is an electronic device used to capture and store photographs electronically in a digital format, instead of using photographic film like conventional cameras, or recording images in an analog format to magnetic tape like many video cameras. Modern compact digital cameras are typically multifunctional, with some devices capable of recording sound and/or video as well as photographs. In the Western market, digital still cameras now outsell their 35 mm film counterparts
  • 5. How do we use them?
    • Work
    • Play
    • Sport
    • Family
    • Daily activity
  • 6. What have they allowed us to do?
    • Distribution of images
    • Manipulation of images
    • OT practice
  • 7.
    • ‘ New technologies are never totally superior to the older technologies they attempt to replace’
  • 8. Ethical Issues
    • In OT practice
    • In day to day life
    • Who do you have a responsibility to?
  • 9. Pixels
    • A pixel is a contraction if the term PI cture EL ement. Digital images are made up of small squares, just like a tile mosaic on your kitchen or bathroom wall. Though a digital photograph looks smooth and continuous just like a regular photograph, it's actually composed of millions of tiny squares.
  • 10. Retrevied 26 th February 2007 from: http://photo.net/equipment/digital/basics/
  • 11. Pixel Count
    • One of the main ways that manufacturers categorize their digital cameras is in terms of pixel count . What this is is the number of individual pixels that go into making each image. Today this number varies between 1 million ( 1 Megapixel ) to around 14 million ( 14 Megapixels ). A million pixels is abbreviated to MP, so a 1MP camera has 1 million pixels and a 3MP camera has 3 million pixels. Currently most popular consumer digital cameras have between 2MP and 5MP. A 3MP camera can make excellent 4"x6" prints and very good 5"x7" prints. If you intend to make lots of 8"x10" prints, then perhaps a 4MP or 5MP camera would be a better choice. Sometimes two numbers are given, total pixels and effective pixels. Total pixels count every pixel on the sensor surface. Usually the very edge pixels aren't used in the final image. Effective pixels are the number of pixels actually used in the image after the edge pixels have been dropped.
  • 12. Digital Zoom and Optical Zoom
    • Most cameras have both optical zoom and digital zoom. Optical zoom works just like a zoom lens on a film camera. The lens changes focal length and magnification as it is zoomed. Image quality stays high throughout the zoom range. Digital zoom simply crops the image to a smaller size, then enlarges the cropped portion to fill the frame again. Digital zoom results in a significant loss of quality as is clear from the examples below. It's pretty much a last resort, and if you don't have it in camera, you can do a similar job using almost any image editing program.
  • 13. Retrevied 26th February 2007 from: h ttp://photo.net/equipment/digital/basics/
  • 14. JPEG
    • The size of the digital file corresponding to the image which the camera produces depends on the pixel count. In most consumer digicams each pixel generates 3 bytes of data (so called "8-bit data"). One for red, one for green and one for blue. This means that a 3MP camera, which has 3 million pixels, generates 9 million bytes of data, or 9MB (megabytes). A few cameras can generate extra data for extra quality, and some of these cameras generate files which correspond to 2 bytes of data for each color   ("16-bit"), so a 3MP camera which is capable of generating 16-bit data will produce an 18MB image file.
    • Now these files are pretty big and they can be compressed quite a lot without a significant drop in quality. This is where JPEG (Joint Photo Experts Group) comes in. JPEG is an algorithm designed to work with continuous tone photographic images) which takes image data and compresses it in a lossy manner (this means you do lose some information). The more you compress, the smaller the file but the more information you lose. However, you can reduce file size by a factor of 10 or so and still get a very high quality image, just about as good as the uncompressed image for most purposes. You can reduce the file size by a factor of 40 - or even more - but the image starts to look really bad!
  • 15. On the left, 10:1 JPEG compression. On the Right 40:1 compression. Uncompressed the image would look virtually identical to the 10:1 JPEG on the left. Retrevied 26th February 2007 from: h ttp://photo.net/equipment/digital/basics/
  • 16. Out and about with tripods and cameras
  • 17.