T H E T R E AT Y O F n VERSAILLES io is veR s Revisi on Tip As part of your revision, think about the arguments and facts you would use to explain: Why did the big three disagree at the conference? T H E K E Y = B .R .A .T Why did the Germans claim that the peace treaty was unfair? What were the motives and aims of the big three at Versailles? GERMAN FRUSTRATIONS The Germans were shown the proposed Treaty of Versailles. There was no negotiation. The Germans published a rebuttal, arguing that the treaty was unfair, but they were ignored. On 28 June 1919, the delegates met at the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, near Paris, and forced two Germans to sign the treaty.
The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 June 1919 and consistedof 440 Articles setting out the terms for Germanys punishment.The treaty was greeted with shock and disbelief in Germany. Answer preparation As part of your revision, think about the arguments and facts you would use to explain:1. What the Treaty of Versailles said. 2. What the territorial, military and ﬁnancial provisions of the Treaty of Versailles were.3. What the Germans thought of the treaty. 4. Why the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles made the Germans so angry.
r eact ion s to the lea gu e on s Ex am Questi The following are some questions that have appeared in previous exam questions. You could practice them at home (see the next pages for the mark schemes and tips) What were Lloyd George’s aims at Versailles? (4) Explain why Clemenceau wanted the Treaty of Versailles to punish Germany severely. (5) Study Source A. What is the message of this cartoon? Use details of the cartoon and your knowledge to explain your answer. (6)"We shall have The following were all equally important reasons whyto ﬁght Germany was dissatisfied with the Treaty:another war (i) the reduction in armed forces; (ii) the loss of territory;again in 25 (iii) the imposing of war guilt and reparations.years time." How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer referring only to (i), (ii) and (iii). (10) David Lloyd George
Study Source A.What is the message of this cartoon? Use details of the cartoon and yourknowledge to explain your answer. (6)Level 1 Uses surface features of cartoon only 1-2e.g. ‘The Allied leaders have been meeting at the Peace Conference.’‘A little boy is upset.’Level 2 Interpretation only 2-3e.g. ‘There will be another war in the future.’‘Peace will not last.’‘What has been decided at the Conference will not work.’Level 3 Interpretation supported by details of the cartoon OR by contextualknowledge 4-5 e.g. ‘The cartoon shows the ‘Big Four’ leaving the peace conference. Clemenceausayshe can hear a child weeping. The child is behind a pillar and over whose head are thewords ‘1940 class’. The cartoon is saying that the child is one who will be of militaryage in 1940. The caption adds the child is ‘future cannon fodder’ implying the peacewill not last beyond 1940.’ORe.g. ‘The cartoon is saying many at the time thought that the terms decided at thepeace conference were too severe on Germany and that they were storing up troublefor the future. It was a ‘diktat’, making Germany responsible for the war and for whichthey had to pay reparations. This approach would make them want to take revenge onthe allies in the near future.’Level 4 Interpretation supported by details of the cartoon AND by contextualknowledge 6 Explain why Clemenceau wanted the Treaty of Versailles to punish Germany severely. (6) Level 1 General answer lacking specific contextual knowledge 1 e.g. ‘To make them suffer.’ Level 2 Identifies AND/OR describes why 2-3 (One mark for each) e.g. ‘To gain revenge on Germany for French suffering.’ ‘To make Germany pay the cost of the damage.’ ‘To prevent future German attacks on France.’ ‘To regain Alsace-Lorraine.’ Level 3 Explains why 3-6 (One explained reason 3-4 marks; two or more explained reasons 4-6 marks.) e.g. ‘Germany had left much of north-east France devastated and Clemenceau wanted to ensure that this did not happen again.’ ‘When retreating, Germany had deliberately destroyed mines railways and factories. The French expected Germany to pay for this destruction.’ ‘Clemenceau wanted the German military to be disbanded so as to prevent future invasions.’
What were Lloyd George’s aims at Versailles? (4) One mark for each relevant aim; additional mark for supporting detail. e.g. ‘Lloyd George wanted to achieve peace.’ ‘To ensure France did not become to powerful.’ ‘To ensure British interests overseas were protected.’ ’To prevent Germany becoming too weak to trade with Britain.’ ‘To prevent Germany becoming so poor it turned to communism.’ ‘To avoid humiliating the Germans to avoid them wanting revenge.’The following were all equally important reasons why Germany was dissatisfied with the Treaty:(i) the reduction in armed forces;(ii) the loss of territory;(iii) the imposing of war guilt and reparations.How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer referring only to (i), (ii) and (iii).Level 1 General answer lacking specific contextual knowledge 1-2e.g. ‘They are all equally important as they all affected Germany and its people in someway.’Level 2 Description of reasons for dissatisfaction 2-4(One mark for each) e.g. ‘The army was limited to 100,000 men and conscription was not allowed.’ ‘Germany lost all their colonies, the Saar and the Polish corridor. Alsace-Lorraine wasreturned to France.’ ‘Germany had to accept blame for the war and to pay for the damage.’Level 3 Explanation of ONE reason 4-6(Developed explanation to be given two marks within L3 and L4) e.g. ‘The treaty restricted Germany’s armed forces to a level well below what they hadbeen before the war. As they could only have six battleships and no air force it left themvulnerable to attack. The army had been their pride and joy and they could no longer useconscription to maintain its status.’ OR ‘The loss of land meant that many Germans were no longer living in Germany despite thepromise of self-determination in the Fourteen points. The loss of land also included someof Germany’s important industrial areas such as the Saar and Upper Silesia. The loss ofthese industrial areas made it harder for Germany to recover after the war.’ OR ‘This clause was simple but was seen by Germans as extremely harsh. The Treaty was a‘Diktat’ and Germany had no choice but to accept. This was humiliating as they believedother countries were equally responsible. Germany claimed the high reparations were anattempt to bankrupt them and again they had no choice but accept. The need for revengebuilt up.’Level 4 Explanation of two OR three reasons 6-9All three aspects to be dealt with for 9 marks.Level 5 Explains with evaluation of ‘equally important’ 9-10 Here candidates must make comparison with full explanation. All three must have been explained to reachthis level.