Lucy West- Accountable Talk

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  • 1. Robust Conversations at Every Level July 4, 2007 Lucy West
  • 2. Overview
    • Making the case for talk
    • Talk tools
    • Analyzing talk in video clips
    • Questions
  • 3.
    • Children grow into the intellectual life around them. Vygotsky
    • What is the quality of the intellectual life at your school?
    • What’s your evidence?
  • 4.
    • What do the adults at your school spend the majority of their time talking to each other about?
    • What do students hear adults discussing?
    • How often do students see teachers engaged in learning?
  • 5.
      • Are the adult conversations and practices at your school designed to develop student academic proficiencies well beyond high scores on achievement tests?
  • 6. Hypotheses
    • If adults are visibly, actively, and passionately learning together students will too.
    • If adults are publicly willing to try on new skills, analyze their erroneous thinking aloud, experiment, tinker, and laugh at themselves when they mess up, students will too.
  • 7.
    • What is accountable talk?
    • What role does talk play in developing professional expertise?
    • What is the nature of talk that results in dramatic improvement in student achievement?
  • 8. Accountable to the Learning Community
    • Accountable talk seriously responds to and further develops what others in the group have said.
  • 9. Accountable to the Learning Community
    • What is the nature of the talk at meetings of adults at your school?
    • Are people questioning each other’s ideas,weighing suggestions, considering alternatives, providing evidence?
  • 10. Accountable to the Learning Community
    • What is the nature of the talk in your classrooms?
    • Are students questioning each other’s ideas,weighing suggestions, considering alternatives, providing evidence?
  • 11. Accountable to Knowledge
    • Accountable talk puts forth and demands knowledge that is accurate and relevant to the issue under discussion.
    • Accountable talk uses evidence appropriate to the discipline (e.g., proofs in mathematics, textual details in literature)
  • 12. Accountable to Knowledge
    • What knowledge is put forth and demanded of adults at your school in relation to instructional strategies and evidence of their impact?
    • A plethora of instructional strategies is key
  • 13. Accountable to Knowledge
    • What evidence can you site that worksheets develop understanding or skill?
    • What evidence can you site that all students should be engaging in the same activities at the same time?
  • 14. Accountable to Reasoning
    • Accountable talk follows established norms of good reasoning
  • 15. Accountable to Reasoning
    • Are the teachers at your school focused on student reasoning or right answers?
  • 16. Research
      • Exemplary teachers foster much more student talk--teacher/student and student/student
      • Purposeful talk-problem-posing and problem-solving--teachers and students
        • Richard Allington
  • 17. Nature of Talk
    • Interrogational--teachers pose problems, children respond, teacher verifies or corrects
    • Conversational--discuss ideas, concepts, hypotheses, strategies and responses
  • 18. Research
    • In successful high poverty schools the environment talk is more conversational than interrogational.
    • Interactions invited conversations.
    • Teachers worked to get kids to think aloud and modeled thinking aloud.
      • Richard Allington
  • 19. Research
    • When classes are conversational the achievement gains are twice as large as when there is a focus on phonics.
      • Richard Allington
  • 20. Nature of Talk
    • Teacher questions more “open” inviting multiple and varied correct responses
    • Teacher curious about thinking and making thinking visible
  • 21. One activity that assists struggling readers is engaging in literate conversations.
      • Richard Allington
      • Could engaging in robust mathematics conversations assist struggling learners?
  • 22. Talk Develops Language
    • If you want to develop language and the capacity to write, have students answer questions and write in full sentences.
    • Douglas Reeves
    • How often are students answering in one word or number in the math class?
  • 23. Research
      • Students at all levels benefited from exemplary teaching, but it was the lowest achievers who benefited most.
      • Expertise matters
  • 24. Dialogue
    • Dialogue is the central aspect of co-intelligence. We can only generate higher levels of intelligence among us if we are doing some high quality talking with one another.
      • Tom Alec, The Tao Of Democracy
  • 25. Dialogue
    • Please turn to a partner and discuss the ideas I have presented so far
    • Write down any questions you would like to ask
  • 26. Professional Dialogue
    • Discussing Practice
    • Nicole--2nd Year Teacher--5th Grade
    • Jessica--3rd Year Teacher--Coach
    • People in the Background--Coaches
    • Cultivating a Learning Culture
  • 27. Questioning Practice
    • Chef Leo bought 1-1/2 pints of strawberries. Altogether he used 3/4 of the strawberries to make tarts. How many pints of strawberries does he have left ?
    • Please solve the problem.
  • 28. Questioning Practice
    • Chef Leo bought 1-1/2 pints of strawberries. Altogether he used 3/4 of the strawberries to make tarts. How many pints of strawberries does he have left ?
    • What about key words like “of” “left” “altogether”?
  • 29. Video Clip 1
  • 30. Questioning Practice
    • What is your thinking about teaching “key words” in mathematics problems?
    • Do you teach “key words” in other content areas? If so why? If not, why not?
    • What might be the drawbacks of a “key words” approach?
    • What additional strategies might you suggest?
  • 31. Questions for Practice
    • I used 2/3 of a can of paint to cover 1/2 the floor of the porch. How much paint will be needed for the whole floor?
    • Please solve this problem.
  • 32. Questions for Practice
    • I used 2/3 of a can of paint to cover 1/2 of the floor of the porch. How much paint will be needed for the whole floor?
    • Does “of” indicate multiplication in this problem?
    • If so, what are you multiplying?
    • If not, what did you do to solve the problem?
    • What confusions, difficulties, might students display?
  • 33. Questions for Practice
    • Many students in the first class wanted to multiply
    • It was difficult to get them to think beyond key words
    • Coach and teacher become aware of this unintended impact
  • 34. Video Clip 2
  • 35. Considering Alternatives
    • Responding to a question from the observing coaches and teachers
    • Acknowledging mistakes
    • Now what?
  • 36. Video Clip 3
  • 37. Class 2-Painting the Porch
    • Replanned the lesson based on our learning
    • Students were asked to read the problem to themselves and discuss with neighbor--asked questions of teacher
    • Students worked alone and with partners--many had difficulty
    • Summary meeting to share some ideas and student work
  • 38. Talk Tools
    • 22 Verbal Events
    • Classroom Discussion Moves
    • Questioning the Author Moves
    • Please read these three documents
    • Choose the one that resonates for you
    • Use it as a lens to view the discussion
  • 39. Class 2--Painting the Porch
    • First time working with this class-consultant/coach
    • 20 observers
    • Focus on developing meaning/use of language
    • Not exemplar--just an example--problematic moments in teaching/learning
    • View it through inquiry stance
  • 40. Classroom Clip
    • Use your transcript
    • Identify talk moves made by the teacher
    • Look for evidence of development of language
    • Look for evidence of reasoning
    • Look for evidence of accountability to the community
  • 41. Video Clip
  • 42. Classroom Clip
    • At your tables please do the following:
    • Read an example from the transcript
    • State what move you think it is
    • Or state what evidence it represents regarding language development, reasoning, or community accountability
    • Do this one at a time going around the table until each person has shared
    • Then discuss or respond in any way you like
  • 43. Classroom Clip-Border Problem
    • How do teachers handle mistakes?
    • How might errors become pathways to learning?
  • 44. Classroom Clip 2
    • The Border Problem
    • Please solve the following problem.
    • Consider what errors students might make?
  • 45. Bordering a Pool
    • How many red tiles will it take to border a five-by-five pool with a width of one square unit?
  • 46. Why Does It Take 24 Tiles?
  • 47. Classroom Clip 2
    • Perimeter can be confused with border.
    • The solution is:
      • Perimeter + 4 (corner tiles) = Border
    • What is the area of the pool with the border?
  • 48. Classroom Clip 2
    • What is the area of the pool with the border?
    • Why might someone think the pool with the border would have an area of 36 square units?
    • How did a 5 x 5 pool become 7 x 7 if you only added one square unit of border? In other words, why is the pool with the border not a 6 x 6?
  • 49. Classroom Clip 2
    • View the tape with an ear toward how mistakes are handled in this classroom
    • Consider what results from examining a student’s error
    • 8th Grade students
    • Several entered class 2 years below grade level
    • All graduated having met standard on the 8th grade state mathematics test
  • 50. Video Clip-Border Problem
  • 51. Classroom-Border Problem
    • Use transcript to find evidence of talk moves
    • Focus on the teacher’s moves with Christen
    • Focus on the comments of Tiffany and Lulu
  • 52. Analyzing the Talk
    • Right or wrong ask, “How did you get that?”
    • What does this accomplish?
        • It establishes the norm that we are interested in each other’s thinking
        • It establishes a mathematical habit of mind to think about your thinking.
  • 53. Analyzing the Talk
    • What does this accomplish?
        • It develops the skills to meet one of mathematical performance standards—the ability to communicate your thinking.
        • It allows us to informally assess what our students do and do not understand in order to guide instructional decisions.
  • 54. Classroom Clip--Alexis
    • How might we entice reluctant learners to participate in the conversation?
    • Refer to data on handout
    • Transcript of Bridge Problem
  • 55. Paper Bridges Data 8th Grade Class, Baltimore, MD.
  • 56. Bridge Problem
    • 7th Grade Class--not yet engaging in discourse
    • 28 students present--100% African American
    • Classroom Arrangement Altered
    • Partial Purpose, demonstrate how to get reluctant
    • learners to engage in dialogue
    • 15 Coaches, Teacher Leaders observing
  • 57. Bridge Problem
    • What moves does the teacher make to scaffold Alexis’ participation?
    • What are your thoughts about this segment?
  • 58. Teacher Talk Moves
    • Call on a student whose hand is not raised-Alexis
    • Asks her to focus on the specific subset of data under discussion
    • Reads the data to her
    • Offers turn-and-talk time
    • Tells the student she will be coming back to her
  • 59. Teacher Talk Moves
    • Has a second student give the answer
    • Paraphrases the student’s answer
    • Asks Alexis to give the answer
    • Acknowledges that she got it correct
  • 60. Teacher Talk Moves
    • High expectations
    • Support to meet those expectations
    • Culture of respect and encouragement
    • Attitude: “I believe in you”
    • Belief: “You can do this”
    • Commitment: “I’m here for you”
  • 61. Questions
  • 62. Reference
    • What I’ve Learned About Effective Reading Instruction: From a Decade of Studying Exemplary Elementary Classroom Teachers
      • Richard Allington
      • Phi Delta Kappan, June, 2002