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Chapter 2 Constitution
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Chapter 2 Constitution


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  • 1. The Constitution Chapter 2
  • 2. Constitution
    • Definition
      • A nation’s basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.
    • Sets the broad rules of the game.
    • The rules are not neutral- some participants and policy options have advantages others don’t.
  • 3. The Origins of the Constitution
    • FLAG BURNING INTRO- what is the point of this chapter??- can anyone tell the story to me?
    • Why did Gregory Johnson win?
    • The Road to Revolution
      • Colonists didn’t like the way they were treated- taxes, lack or representation in parliament- (what the heck is parliament) ?
    • Declaring Independence
      • The Declaration of Independence listed the colonists grievances against the British. Who was the primary author???
  • 4. The Origins of the Constitution
    • The English Heritage: The Power of Ideas
      • John Locke’s influence
      • Natural rights- Can anyone Define???
      • Page 32 last paragraph
      • Consent of the governed
      • Limited Government
      • Independence is Won!! Now what??
  • 5. The Origins of the Constitution
  • 6. The Government That Failed
    • Economic Turmoil
    • - Congress was broke (couldn’t tax)
      • States had different currencies
      • States had laws that favored debtors
    • Shays’ Rebellion (today’s housing crisis)
      • A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.- Congress could not stop the rebellion- why not??
      • What good came of the AOC? Anything positive?
  • 7. Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention
    • Gentlemen in Philadelphia
      • 55 men from 12 of the 13 states
      • Mostly wealthy planters & merchants
      • Most were college graduates with some political experience
      • Many were coastal residents from the larger cities, not the rural areas
  • 8. The Philadelphia Convention, continued
    • Philosophy into Action
      • Human Nature – mans natural state is war
      • Political Conflict- What are factions?
      • “ The distribution of wealth (land) is the source of political conflict” – these conflicts caused factions-
      • Objects of Government-
      • security from invasion, domestic tranquility, promotion of general welfare-
      • Nature of Government-
      • Power should be set against power- checks, balances, and separation of power would be needed.
  • 9. The Agenda in Philadelphia
    • The Equality Issues
      • Equality and Representation of the States
        • New Jersey Plan
        • each state equal representation in congress
        • Virginia Plan
        • lets base representation on population
        • Connecticut Compromise- Genius!!!!!
      • Slavery- three fifths compromise
      • Political Equality- who can vote?
      • It was left up to the states
  • 10. The Agenda in Philadelphia
  • 11. The Agenda in Philadelphia
    • The Economic Issues
      • States had tariffs on products from other states
      • Paper money was basically worthless
      • Congress couldn’t raise money
      • Actions taken:
      • Powers of Congress to be strengthened
      • Powers of states to be limited
  • 12. The Agenda in Philadelphia
  • 13. The Agenda in Philadelphia
    • The Individual Rights Issues
      • Some were written into the Constitution:
        • Writ of habeas corpus
        • No bills of attainder- must have trail to punish
        • No ex post facto laws- What’s that ?
        • Religious qualifications for holding office prohibited
        • Strict rules of evidence for conviction of treason
        • Right to trial by jury in criminal cases
      • Some were not specified
        • Freedom of speech / expression
        • Rights of the accused
  • 14. The Madisonian Model
    • Limiting Majority Control
    • Separating Powers- what was separated?
    • Creating Checks and Balances
    • Establishing a Federal System
  • 15. The Madisonian Model
    • The Constitution and the Electoral Process: The Original Plan (Figure 2.2)
  • 16. The Madisonian Model Figure 2.3
  • 17. The Madisonian Model
    • The Constitutional Republic
      • Republic: A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
      • Favors the status quo - changes are slow
    • The End of the Beginning
      • The document was approved, but not unanimously. Now it had to be ratified.
  • 18. Ratifying the Constitution
  • 19. Ratifying the Constitution
    • Federalist Papers
      • A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name “Publius” to defend the Constitution.
    • Bill of Rights
      • The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns about the lack of basic liberties.
  • 20. Ratifying the Constitution
  • 21. Constitutional Change Figure 2.4
  • 22. Constitutional Change
    • The Informal Process of Constitutional Change
      • Judicial Interpretation
      • Changing Political Practice
      • Technology
      • Increasing Demands on Policymakers
  • 23. Understanding the Constitution
    • The Constitution and Democracy
      • The Constitution itself is rarely described as democratic.
      • There has been a gradual democratization of the Constitution.
    • The Constitution and the Scope of Government
      • Much of the Constitution limits government.
      • The Constitution reinforces individualism, yet encourages hyperpluralism.