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  • P7

    1. 1. CASTLE TOWNS: BEYOND THE WALLS IN TIMES OF PEACE By Aditi D., Kiran A. and Ryne M.
    2. 2. <ul><li>Castle towns in Japan depended a lot on the social structure. The higher your rank, the close you would live to the castle. The merchants were the most affluent people to live in the castle towns, but were the lowest class. There were special places in the town for merchants and artisans to live. Tokyo and Kanazawa both significantly grew as castle towns (along with many other cities in Japan). </li></ul>Introduction
    3. 3. <ul><li>Samurai's daily life was lead between two poles-Daimyo's Castle and Samurai estates </li></ul><ul><li>Whether samurai is an estate manager, or a worker in the field depends on the resources possessed </li></ul><ul><li>Service to ones lord produced reward and increased Obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Daimyos base would be centered in a castle </li></ul><ul><li>Castles role- an economic centre encouraging the growth of Jokamachi (castle towns)- spread around the castle walls </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Japanese Prefectural Capitols were once Castle towns of Daimyo </li></ul><ul><li>Castles evolved from being stockades on mountains to huge fortresses </li></ul><ul><li>Outer walls of castles sheltered buildings where samurai lived </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of buildings lived in depended on rank of the samurai </li></ul><ul><li>The closest of the retainers lived in the buildings nearest to the centre of the castle </li></ul>Daimyo Castles
    4. 4. <ul><li>Merchants were the wealthiest, but lowest class, of castle towns </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants were barred from rest of the society </li></ul><ul><li>Given separate forms of entertainment: Wrestling, Gambling, Kabuki Theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans produced goods for castle Samurai </li></ul><ul><li>Sword Smiths, Armor smiths, Carpenters, Roofers, and Sawyers were 5 ancient crafts </li></ul><ul><li>Bushido- &quot;the way of the warrior&quot;: the strict code of honor and loyalty, more important than fame or money </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai emphasized simplicity, and were always prepared to die for master </li></ul><ul><li>Helped their daimyo collect taxes and enforced laws under guidance of Daimyo </li></ul><ul><li>Social classes: Samurai (shi); Peasants (no); Artisans (ko); Merchants (sho). </li></ul>Castle Town Social Structure
    5. 5. <ul><li>Tokugawa shogun removed outside influences from Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic trade and population grew: By mid 1700s, there were 2,000,000 people living in Edo (modern day Tokyo), Kyoto and Osaka </li></ul><ul><li>Caused production of more handicrafts and goods, which caused road and ship (ships delivering goods) building </li></ul><ul><li>Economic prosperity helped people with no land improve way of living </li></ul><ul><li>People began to live urban lives </li></ul><ul><li>Tea houses & taverns were places lovers met, Kabuki theaters and public baths being used and more tourists coming to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese rulers interested in examples from Confucianism, like kind governments and loyal citizens </li></ul><ul><li>In Tokugawa period, Confucian ways grew popular: Each person has a duty to follow his/her mission (Everyone has a mission of their own) </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of nationalism came over Japan because of Kokugaku (national learning. This is a Confucian teaching) </li></ul>Japan’s City Growth
    6. 6. <ul><li>Japanese castles were some of most beautiful in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Castles were built to protect the people that lived inside of them. </li></ul><ul><li>First Samurai castles were made of rough wood </li></ul><ul><li>They were put beside rivers, swamps, on the top of hills, on cliffs </li></ul><ul><li>They were protected by natural defenses such as animals </li></ul><ul><li>As the castles were built better, they were home to bands of Samurai </li></ul><ul><li>Bands fought to gain land for their daimyo. </li></ul>Building Castles and Daimyos
    7. 7. <ul><li>Average Japanese castle has three rings of defense: </li></ul><ul><li>- honmaru: main circle </li></ul><ul><li>- ninomaru: second circle </li></ul><ul><li>- sannomaru: third circle </li></ul><ul><li>Castle tower stands in honmaru </li></ul><ul><li>Lords lived in ninomaru and samurai dwelled in town around castle </li></ul><ul><li>Castles made mainly of wood, new reconstructions made of concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Most castle towers, or tenshukakus, have 2-5 stories </li></ul><ul><li>Guard towers, or yaguras, serve as watch towers/storage rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Many rings of walls and moats to keep enemies out of castles </li></ul><ul><li>Most castle towers had two gates placed at a 90 o angle to each other. </li></ul>Castle Structure
    8. 8. <ul><li>I hope you now understand why Castle towns are considered very important in Ancient Japan. They are beautiful and magnificent, and have brilliant military and danger precautions built in to the castle. Everything from the social structure to the building of the castles in the castle town has a meaning and are interesting to understand and learn about. </li></ul>Conclusion