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Evolution of communication
 

Evolution of communication

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    Evolution of communication Evolution of communication Presentation Transcript

    • EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATION 18-20 TH CENTURY -Mridu Agarwal CD L1
    • 1755 : FIRST ENGLISH D I C T I O N A RY Samuel Johnson publishes the first English language dictionary on April 15th after nine years of writing. In the preface Samuel Johnson wrote, "I am not so lost in lexicography as to forget that words are the daughters of earth, and that things are the sons of heaven."
    • 1 7 7 4 : PAT E N T O F E L E C T R I C TELEGRAPH The telegraph was a communication system that originally relied on a line of site in order to receive a message. Georges Louis Lesage, a physicist from Geneva invented an electric telegraph in 1774 that had a simple charged wire for every letter in the alphabet. This allowed telegraphs to be sent without the required line of site and ―smoke signals‖.
    • 1775: INVENTION OF STEAMSHIP Jacques Perrier invents a steamship. One great way to communicate overseas, though steamship was first sailed in 1819.
    • 1776: INVENTION OF SUBMARINE The first American submarine is as old as the United States itself. David Bushnell (1742-1824), a Yale graduate, designed and built a submarine torpedo boat in 1776. The one-man vessel submerged by admitting water into the hull and surfaced by pumping it out with a hand pump. Powered by a pedal-operated propeller and armed with a keg of powder, the egg-shaped Turtle gave Revolutionary Americans high hopes for a secret weapon - a weapon that could destroy the British warships anchored in New York Harbor.
    • 1 7 9 9 : F O U R D R I N I E R M AC H I N E
    • Louis Robert invents the Fourdrinier Machine for sheet paper making. A papermaking machine that could make continuous paper (rolls). A patent was granted on July 24, 1806, for a machine that could make any size of paper, very quickly. Large Fourdrinier-style paper-making machine. A row of heated drums dry out the paper, which enters the machine as wet pulp. Large rolls are usually sliced into a number of thin rolls, which can feed continuous presses (e.g. newspapers) or be cut into separate sheets. The invention cost £60000, and caused the brothers to go bankrupt. Due to various laws, it was difficult to protect the patent on the machine, and the new system was widely adopted.
    • 1810 : IMPROVED PRINTING PRESS German, Frederick Koenig invents an improved printing press, this allowed people to print documents.
    • 1814: PHOTOGRAPHY Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was the first person to take a photograph. He took the picture by setting up a machine called the camera obscura in the window of his home in France. It took eight hours for the camera to take the picture.
    • 1821: ENCHANTED LYRE In September of 1821, Charles Wheatstone exhibited his Enchanted Lyre or Aconcryptophone at a gallery in a music store. The Enchanted Lyre was not a real instrument, it was a sounding box disguised as a lyre that hung from the ceiling by a steel rod, and emitted the sounds of several instruments: piano, harp, and dulcimer. It appeared as if the Enchanted Lyre was playing itself. However, the steel rod conveyed the vibrations of the music from real instruments which were played out of view by real musicians.
    • 1827 :COIN THE PHRASE M I C RO P H O N E Charles Wheatstone was the first person to coin the phrase microphone.
    • 1 8 2 9 : W. A . I N V E N T S TYPOGRAPHER In 1829, William Austin Burt invents the typographer, a predecessor to the typewriter, he patents the same.
    • 1829: BRAILLE Frenchmen, Louis Braille invents braille printing for the blind.
    • 1835: CALOTYPE PHOTOGRAPHY Englishmen, Henry Talbot invents calotype photography. Talbot made his first successful camera photographs in 1835 using paper sensitized with silver chloride, which darkened in proportion to its exposure to light. This early "photogenic drawing" process was a printing-out process, i.e., the paper had to be exposed in the camera until the image was fully visible. A very long exposure—typically an hour or more—was required to produce an acceptable negative.
    • 1835: MECHANICAL C A L C U L AT O R Charles Babbage invents a mechanical calculator.
    • 1837 : TELEGRAPH Developed in the 1830s and 1840s by Samuel Morse (1791-1872) and other inventors, the telegraph revolutionized long-distance communication. It worked by transmitting electrical signals over a wire laid between stations. In addition to helping invent the telegraph, Samuel Morse developed a code (bearing his name) that assigned a set of dots and dashes to each letter of the English alphabet and allowed for the simple transmission of complex messages across telegraph lines. In 1844, Morse sent his first telegraph message, from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, Maryland; by 1866, a telegraph line had been laid across the Atlantic Ocean from the U.S. to Europe. Although the telegraph had fallen out of widespread use by the start of the 21st century, replaced by the telephone, fax machine and Internet, it laid the groundwork for the communications revolution that led to those later innovations.
    • 1837: POSTAGE STAMP English schoolmaster, Rowland Hill invents the postage stamp.
    • 1838: MORSE CODE Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment. The International Morse Code encodes the ISO basic Latin alphabet, some extra Latin letters, the Arabic numerals and a small set of punctuation and procedural signals as standardized sequences of short and long signals called "dots" and "dashes",or "dits" and "dahs". Because many non-English natural languages use more than the 26 Roman letters, extensions to the Morse alphabet exist for those languages.
    • 1839: DAG U E R R E O T Y P E P H O T O G R A P H Y . Frenchmen, Louis Daguerre and J.N. Niepce coinvent Daguerreotype photography. Using the camera obscura (a drawing aid for artists that after the birth of photography became known as the photographic camera) a light tight plate holder was designed to hold a copper plate faced with a thin layer of silver. Prior to exposing the plate in the camera, the plate was made light sensitive by fumes from iodine crystals in a wooden box. After the exposure, mercury fumes would develop the image which was then fixed in a solution of common salt (sodium chloride) or of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3.5H2O). The plate could be toned in gold chloride.
    • 1 8 6 7 : P R AC T I C A L U S E O F TELEPHONE
    • 1 8 7 6 : PAT E N T S T H E TELEPHONE First patented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell and further developed by many others. A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are not in the same vicinity of each other to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals suitable for transmission via cables or other transmission media over long distances, and replays such signals simultaneously in audible form to its user. The wordtelephone has been adapted into the vocabulary of many languages. It is derived from the Greek: τῆλε, tēle, far and φωνή, phōnē, voice, together meaning distant voice.
    • 1877: TIN FOIL PHONOGRAPH The phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison. It is a device introduced in 1877 for the recording and reproduction of sound recordings. The recordings played on such a device consist of waveforms that are engraved onto a rotating cylinder or disc. As the cylinder or disc rotates, a stylus or needle traces the waveforms and vibrates to reproduce the recorded sound waves
    • 1 8 7 7 : F I R S T M OV I N G P I C T U R E S Eadweard Muybridge invents the first moving pictures.
    • 1 8 8 1 : PAT E N T S T H E RO L L F I L M F O R CAMERAS John Huston patents the roll film for cameras.
    • 1 8 8 4 : PA P E R S T R I P PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM George Eastman patents paper-strip photographic film.
    • 1887 : FIRST GRAMOPHONE By Emelie Berliner Grampophone
    • 1 8 9 5 : P O RTA B L E M O T I O N PICTURE CAMERA Lumiere Brothers invent a portable motion-picture camera, film processing unit and projector called the Cinematographe. Lumiere Brothers using their Cinematographe are the first to present a projected motion picture to an audience of more that one person.
    • 1895: FIRST RADIO SIGNAL OV E R A M I L E
    • 1896-1901: INVENTION OF RADIO
    • 1 9 0 7 : I N V E N T I O N O F VAC U U M TUBE RADIO In electronics a vacuum tube, electron tube (in North America), tube, or thermionic valve or valve (in British English) is a device controlling electric current through a vacuum in a sealed container. The container is often thin transparent glass in a roughly cylindrical shape. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode, is similar to an incandescent light bulb with an added electrode inside. When the bulb's filament is heated red-hot, electrons are "boiled" off its surface and into the vacuum inside the bulb. If the electrode—called a "plate" or "anode"—is made more positive than the hot filament, a direct current flows through the vacuum to the electrode (a demonstration of the Edison effect). As the current only flows in one direction, it makes it possible to convert an alternating current applied to the filament to direct current.
    • 1 9 1 0 : D E M O N S T R AT I O N O F F I R S T TA L K I N G M O T I O N P I C T U R E Thomas Edison demonstrated the first talking motion picture.
    • 1 9 1 0 – T E L E G R A P H M E S S AG E S LEADS TO ARREST
    • Captain Henry Kendall, Who was constantly communicating to help catch the culprits. Dr crippen and Ethel Le Nivel found guilty.
    • 1 9 1 2 : M O T O R I Z E D M OV I E CAMERAS Motorized movie cameras invented, replaced hand-cranked cameras.
    • 1912- MACRONI’S FIRST PURPOSE-BUILT R A D I O FA C T O R Y A T N E W S T R E E T W O R K S , ALSO IN CHELMSFORD, ENGLAND
    • 1 9 1 3 - T H E U S N AV Y B E G I N S T R A N S M I T T I N G BY RADIO A REGULAR TIME SIGNAL
    • 1 9 1 5 - D I S C OV E RY O F L O N G D I S T A N C E TELEPHONIC COMMUNICATION
    • 1915- FIRST TRANSMISSION OF SPEECH ACROS S OCEA N S.
    • 1916: RADIO TUNERS Invention of radio tuners which helped onto switching to different radio stations.
    • 1918: S UPER HETERODYN E R A D IO CIRCUIT In electronics, a superheterodyne receiver (often shortened to superhet), invented by US engineer Edwin Armstrong in 1918 during World War 1,uses frequency mixing or heterodyning to convert a received signal to a fixed intermediate frequency(IF), which can be more conveniently processed than the original radio carrier frequency. Virtually all modern radio receivers use the superheterodyne principle. The superheterodyne radio circuit invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong. Today, every radio or television set uses this invention.
    • 1925: MECHANICAL TELEVISION The mechanical television a precursor to the modern television, invented by John Logie Baird.
    • 1926- FIRST DEMONSTRATION OF TELEVISION
    • John Logie Baird gave the world's first demonstration of television to a group assembled in his attic rooms in London. This is John Logie with the TV set.
    • 1 9 2 9 - B B C T O B ROA D C A S T F I R S T T R I A L O N T V S E T.
    • 1 9 6 5 - L A U N C H O F E A R L Y B I R D.
    • 1 9 8 3 - M I D I B E C O M E S T H E S TA N DA R D F O R ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION IN MUSIC
    • 1983: APPLE First ever computer with a monitor and keyboard attached. The most renowned brand Apple, By Steve Jobs.
    • 1986: WINDOWS Windows operating system invented by Microsoft (Bill Gates).
    • 1 9 8 9 - 9 1 – C E R N , F I R S T S T E P T O WA R D S WORLD WIDE WEB 1989- Build ENQUIRE 1990- The first proposal for the world wide web 1991- First website at http://info.cern.ch
    • 1 9 9 7 – R E G I S T RY O F G O O G L E . C O M
    • Larry page and Sergey Brin