18-20 TH CENTURY
1755 : FIRST ENGLISH
D I C T I O N A RY
Samuel Johnson publishes the first
English language dictionary on
April 15th after nine years of
writing. In the preface Samuel
Johnson wrote, "I am not so lost
in lexicography as to forget that
words are the daughters of earth,
and that things are the sons of
1 7 7 4 : PAT E N T O F E L E C T R I C
The telegraph was a communication
system that originally relied on a line of
site in order to receive a message.
Georges Louis Lesage, a physicist from
Geneva invented an electric telegraph
in 1774 that had a simple charged wire
for every letter in the alphabet. This
allowed telegraphs to be sent without
the required line of site and ―smoke
1775: INVENTION OF
Jacques Perrier invents a
steamship. One great way to
communicate overseas, though
steamship was first sailed in
1776: INVENTION OF
The first American submarine is as old as the
United States itself. David Bushnell (1742-1824),
a Yale graduate, designed and built a submarine
torpedo boat in 1776. The one-man vessel
submerged by admitting water into the hull and
surfaced by pumping it out with a hand pump.
Powered by a pedal-operated propeller and
armed with a keg of powder, the egg-shaped
Turtle gave Revolutionary Americans high hopes
for a secret weapon - a weapon that could destroy
the British warships anchored in New York
Louis Robert invents the Fourdrinier Machine for sheet paper making.
A papermaking machine that could make continuous paper (rolls). A patent
was granted on July 24, 1806, for a machine that could make any size of paper,
Large Fourdrinier-style paper-making machine. A row of heated drums dry
out the paper, which enters the machine as wet pulp.
Large rolls are usually sliced into a number of thin rolls, which can feed
continuous presses (e.g. newspapers) or be cut into separate sheets.
The invention cost £60000, and caused the brothers to go bankrupt. Due to
various laws, it was difficult to protect the patent on the machine, and the new
system was widely adopted.
1810 : IMPROVED
German, Frederick Koenig invents an
improved printing press, this allowed
people to print documents.
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was the first person to take a photograph.
He took the picture by setting up a machine called the camera obscura
in the window of his home in France. It took eight hours for the
camera to take the picture.
1821: ENCHANTED LYRE
In September of 1821, Charles Wheatstone
exhibited his Enchanted Lyre or
Aconcryptophone at a gallery in a music store.
The Enchanted Lyre was not a real instrument, it
was a sounding box disguised as a lyre that hung
from the ceiling by a steel rod, and emitted the
sounds of several instruments: piano, harp, and
dulcimer. It appeared as if the Enchanted Lyre
was playing itself. However, the steel rod
conveyed the vibrations of the music from real
instruments which were played out of view by
1827 :COIN THE PHRASE
M I C RO P H O N E
Charles Wheatstone was the first person to coin the phrase
1 8 2 9 : W. A . I N V E N T S
In 1829, William Austin Burt invents the typographer, a predecessor
to the typewriter, he patents the same.
Frenchmen, Louis Braille invents braille printing for the blind.
Englishmen, Henry Talbot invents calotype photography.
Talbot made his first successful camera photographs in 1835 using
paper sensitized with silver chloride, which darkened in proportion to
its exposure to light. This early "photogenic drawing" process was
a printing-out process, i.e., the paper had to be exposed in the camera
until the image was fully visible. A very long exposure—typically an
hour or more—was required to produce an acceptable negative.
C A L C U L AT O R
Charles Babbage invents a mechanical calculator.
1837 : TELEGRAPH
Developed in the 1830s and 1840s by Samuel Morse (1791-1872) and other inventors, the
telegraph revolutionized long-distance communication. It worked by transmitting electrical
signals over a wire laid between stations. In addition to helping invent the telegraph, Samuel
Morse developed a code (bearing his name) that assigned a set of dots and dashes to each letter
of the English alphabet and allowed for the simple transmission of complex messages across
telegraph lines. In 1844, Morse sent his first telegraph message, from Washington, D.C., to
Baltimore, Maryland; by 1866, a telegraph line had been laid across the Atlantic Ocean from the
U.S. to Europe. Although the telegraph had fallen out of widespread use by the start of the 21st
century, replaced by the telephone, fax machine and Internet, it laid the groundwork for the
communications revolution that led to those later innovations.
1837: POSTAGE STAMP
English schoolmaster, Rowland Hill invents the postage stamp.
1838: MORSE CODE
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off
tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or
observer without special equipment. The International Morse Code encodes
the ISO basic Latin alphabet, some extra Latin letters, the Arabic numerals and a
small set of punctuation and procedural signals as standardized sequences of short
and long signals called "dots" and "dashes",or "dits" and "dahs". Because many
non-English natural languages use more than the 26 Roman letters, extensions to
the Morse alphabet exist for those languages.
DAG U E R R E O T Y P E P H O T O G R A P H Y .
Frenchmen, Louis Daguerre and J.N. Niepce coinvent Daguerreotype photography.
Using the camera obscura (a drawing aid for artists that after the birth of
photography became known as the photographic camera) a light tight plate holder
was designed to hold a copper plate faced with a thin layer of silver. Prior to
exposing the plate in the camera, the plate was made light sensitive by fumes from
iodine crystals in a wooden box. After the exposure, mercury fumes would develop
the image which was then fixed in a solution of common salt (sodium chloride) or
of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3.5H2O). The plate could be toned in gold chloride.
1 8 6 7 : P R AC T I C A L U S E O F
1 8 7 6 : PAT E N T S T H E
First patented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell and further developed by many others.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users
to conduct a conversation when they are not in the same vicinity of each other to be
heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human
voice, into electronic signals suitable for transmission via cables or other transmission
media over long distances, and replays such signals simultaneously in audible form to its
user. The wordtelephone has been adapted into the vocabulary of many languages. It is
derived from the Greek: τῆλε, tēle, far and φωνή, phōnē, voice, together meaning distant voice.
1877: TIN FOIL PHONOGRAPH
The phonograph was invented in 1877
by Thomas Edison. It is a device
introduced in 1877 for the recording and
reproduction of sound recordings. The
recordings played on such a device consist
of waveforms that are engraved onto a
rotating cylinder or disc. As the cylinder
or disc rotates, a stylus or needle traces
the waveforms and vibrates to reproduce
the recorded sound waves
1 8 7 7 : F I R S T M OV I N G P I C T U R E S
Eadweard Muybridge invents the first moving pictures.
1 8 8 1 : PAT E N T S T H E RO L L F I L M F O R
John Huston patents the roll film
1 8 8 4 : PA P E R S T R I P
George Eastman patents paper-strip photographic film.
1887 : FIRST GRAMOPHONE
By Emelie Berliner
1 8 9 5 : P O RTA B L E M O T I O N PICTURE CAMERA
Lumiere Brothers invent a portable motion-picture camera, film
processing unit and projector called the Cinematographe. Lumiere
Brothers using their Cinematographe are the first to present a
projected motion picture to an audience of more that one person.
1 9 0 7 : I N V E N T I O N O F VAC U U M
In electronics a vacuum tube, electron tube (in North America), tube, or thermionic
valve or valve (in British English) is a device controlling electric current through a
vacuum in a sealed container. The container is often thin transparent glass in a roughly
cylindrical shape. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode, is similar to an incandescent light
bulb with an added electrode inside. When the bulb's filament is heated red-hot, electrons
are "boiled" off its surface and into the vacuum inside the bulb. If the electrode—called a
"plate" or "anode"—is made more positive than the hot filament, a direct current flows
through the vacuum to the electrode (a demonstration of the Edison effect). As the
current only flows in one direction, it makes it possible to convert an alternating
current applied to the filament to direct current.
1 9 1 0 : D E M O N S T R AT I O N O F F I R S T
TA L K I N G M O T I O N P I C T U R E
Thomas Edison demonstrated the first talking motion picture.
1 9 1 0 – T E L E G R A P H M E S S AG E S
LEADS TO ARREST
Captain Henry Kendall, Who
was constantly communicating to
help catch the culprits.
Dr crippen and Ethel
Le Nivel found guilty.
1 9 1 2 : M O T O R I Z E D M OV I E
Motorized movie cameras invented, replaced hand-cranked cameras.
1912- MACRONI’S FIRST PURPOSE-BUILT
R A D I O FA C T O R Y A T N E W S T R E E T W O R K S ,
ALSO IN CHELMSFORD, ENGLAND
1 9 1 3 - T H E U S N AV Y B E G I N S T R A N S M I T T I N G
BY RADIO A REGULAR TIME SIGNAL
1 9 1 5 - D I S C OV E RY O F L O N G D I S T A N C E
1915- FIRST TRANSMISSION OF SPEECH
ACROS S OCEA N S.
1916: RADIO TUNERS
Invention of radio tuners which helped onto switching to different
1918: S UPER HETERODYN E R A D IO CIRCUIT
In electronics, a superheterodyne receiver (often shortened
to superhet), invented by US engineer Edwin Armstrong in 1918
during World War 1,uses frequency mixing or heterodyning to convert a
received signal to a fixed intermediate frequency(IF), which can be more
conveniently processed than the original radio carrier frequency. Virtually
all modern radio receivers use the superheterodyne principle.
The superheterodyne radio circuit invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong.
Today, every radio or television set uses this invention.
1925: MECHANICAL TELEVISION
The mechanical television a
precursor to the modern
television, invented by John