Anatomy and Physiology Muscular System


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Anatomy and Physiology Muscular System

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Anatomy and Physiology Muscular System

  1. 1. Muscular System
  2. 2. Types of Muscle• Skeletal – striated & voluntary• Smooth – involuntary• Cardiac - heart
  3. 3. Muscles and Muscle FibersMuscles are composed of many fibers that arearranged in bundles called FASCICLESIndividual muscles are separated by FASCIA,which also forms tendons and aponeuroses
  4. 4. Muscle Layers
  5. 5. ENERGYFibers contain multiplemitochondria for energyMost fibers have multiplenuclei
  6. 6. SARCOLEMMASarcolemma = muscle fiber membraneSarcoplasm = inner material surroundingfibers (like cytoplasm)Myofibrils = individual muscle fibers -->made of myofilaments
  7. 7. MyofibrilContains protein filaments       – ACTIN (thin) and MYOSIN (thick) These filaments overlap to form dark andlight bands on the muscle fiber A band = dArk • thick (myosin) I band = lIght • thIn (actin) • In the middle of each I band are Z lines. A sarcomere is on Z line to the other
  8. 8. It is important to remember the heirarchymyosinmyofibrilsfasiclesmyofilamentsactin
  9. 9. It is important to remember the heirarchy fasicles myofibrils myofilaments actin myosin
  10. 10. muscle fiber myofilament myofibrils epimysium muscle sarcomere
  11. 11. myofilamentmuscle sarcomere epimysium myofibrils muscle fiber
  12. 12. Muscles & Nervous System
  13. 13. Motor UnitThe muscle fiber and the motorneuron
  14. 14. SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY(MODEL)The theory of how muscle contracts is the sliding filamenttheory. The contraction of a muscle occurs as the thinfilament slide past the thick filaments. The sliding filamenttheory involves five different molecules plus calcium ions.The five molecules are:myosinactintropomyosintroponinATP
  15. 15. Sliding Filament Handout
  16. 16. Sliding Filament Handout
  18. 18. Energy Source• Provided by ATP from cellular respiration (mitochondria)• Creatine phosphate increases regeneration of ATP• Much of the energy forms heat, which keeps our bodies warm
  19. 19. Other Terms• 1. Threshold Stimulus• 2. All-or-None Response• 3. Motor Unit• 5. Recruitment• 6. Muscle Tone• 7. Muscular Hypertrophy• 8. Muscular Atrophy• 9. Muscle Fatigue• 10. Muscle Cramp• 11. Oxygen Debt
  20. 20. Threshold StimulusMinimal strength required to cause a contractionMotor neuron releases enough acetylcholine toreach thresholdAll-or-None ResponseFibers do not contract partially, they either do ordont
  21. 21. Motor UnitThe muscle fiber + the motorneuronRecruitmentmore and more fibers contract asthe intensity of the stimulusincreasesMuscle ToneSustained contraction ofindividual fibers, even whenmuscle is at rest
  22. 22. Hypertrophy - muscles enlarge (working out or certaindisorders)Atrophy - muscles become small and weak due to disuse
  23. 23. Muscle Fatigue - muscle loses ability to contractafter prolonged exercise or strainMuscle Cramp - a sustained involuntarycontractionOxygen Debt - oxygen is used to create ATP,during exercise you may not have enough oxygen--> this causes Lactic Acid to accumulate in themuscles *See Magic School Bus
  24. 24. Origin and InsertionOrigin = the immovableend of the muscleInsertion = the movableend of the muscle **when a musclecontracts the insertion ismoved toward the origin The biceps brachii has two origins (or two heads).
  25. 25. What is rigor mortis? A few hours after a person or animal dies, the joints of the body stiffen and become locked in place. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. Depending on temperature and other conditions, rigor mortis lasts approximately 72 hours. The phenomenon is caused by the skeletal muscles partially contracting. The muscles are unable to relax, so the joints become fixed in place.
  26. 26. What is tetanus?Tetanus causes cholinosterase to not break down theacetylcholine in the synapse. This results in a personsmuscles contracting and not relaxing. A tetanus shot must be administered shortly after exposure to the bacteria. Once you develop tetanus, there is no cure.