Anatomy and physiology Introduction Chapter 1 Notes


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Introduction Chapter 1 Notes

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Anatomy and physiology Introduction Chapter 1 Notes

  1. 1. Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
  2. 2. Mr. Hunter 09/20/2012• Objective(s)• SWBAT• Name the orientations of the anatomical position• Name and identify the body cavities• Bell Ringer: Define Homeostasis.
  3. 3. Exit Question(s)1. List the levels of organization of a living organism.2. Name the two parts of the Serous Membrane
  4. 4. • Anatomy – the structure of body parts (also called Morphology)• Physiology – the function of the body parts, what they do and how they do it
  5. 5. • Movement - self initiated change in position, motion of internal parts• Responsiveness (irritability) - Ability to sense changes within, or around the organism and react to them• Growth - increase in body size• Reproduction - Parents produce offspring / producing new individuals• Respiration - Obtaining oxygen (O2), using it to release energy from food substances, and getting rid of wastes
  6. 6. • Digestion - Chemically changing (breaking down) food substances, and getting rid of wastes• Absorption - Passage of Digested products (food substances) through membranes and into body fluids• Circulation - Movement of substances throughout the body• Assimilation - Changing absorbed substances into chemically different substances• Excretion - Removal of wastes
  7. 7. • I am walking to Mcdonalds (movement)• I stop at the traffic light (response)• My body is growing (growth)• I am breathing air (respiration)• I get a hamburger and eat it (digestion)• My body absorbs the hamburger (absorption)• The hamburger circulates in my body (circulation)• The hamburger is changed to things my body needs (assimilation)• Eventually, I go to the bathroom (excretion)• Someday I may reproduce (reproduction)
  8. 8. • Metabolism = all the physical and chemical changes• Bodily needs = food, oxygen, water, heat• Homeostasis = tendency of the body to maintain a stable, balanced, internal environment. “Sameness”
  9. 9. • Feedback systems are cycle of events in which the status of aHomeostasis condition is monitored, evaluated, changed and remonitored. • Each monitored variable is called a controlled condition. • Any disruption that changes a controlled condition is called a stimulus. • Three components of a feedback system are: a receptor, a control center and an effector.
  10. 10. • Receptors monitors changes in a controlled condition. It sends inputHomeostasis in the form of nerve impulses or chemical signals to a control center. Ex. Nerve endings in the skin can sense temperature. • A control center sets the range of values which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input from receptors, and generate output commands – nerve impulses, chemical signals / hormones • Effectors are structures that receives output from the control center and produces a response.
  11. 11. Negative Feedback System
  12. 12. Positive Feedback System
  13. 13. • Axial Portion - head, neck, trunk• Appendicular Portion - arms & legs1. Several body cavities2. Layers of membranes within cavities3. Variety of organs and organ systems within cavities(VISCERA = internal organs. "Visceral organs")
  14. 14. Popular in horror movies and games
  15. 15. Body CavitiesDorsal = back sideVentral = front sideThoracic = chest (heart, trachea, lungs..)Abdomen = stomach area (spleen, intestines)Pelvic = lower abdomen (bladder, reproductive organs)DIAPHRAGM: Separates the thoracic and pelvic regionSEROUS MEMBRANE - covers and surrounds organsSERIOUS FLUID - lubricates organs
  16. 16. Its easier to visualize the body cavities on pictures -see Body Cavity Label | Label 2Label the body cavities (use your book)
  17. 17. • Serous Membrane - two layered, covers organs o Outer layer = parietal o Inner layer = visceral (lines the organs)• Serous fluid – lubricating fluid
  18. 18. • Pleura = lungs• Pericardium = heart• Peritoneum = organs (abdominopelvic region)
  19. 19. Visceral Pleura / Parietal PleuraVisceral Pericardium / ParietalPericardiumVisceral Peritoneum / ParietalPeritoneum
  20. 20. Homework: Organ Systems Concept Map
  21. 21. Anatomical TerminologyAnatomical Position = standing erect, faceforward, arms at side, palms facing forward*Study and learn the following terms*1. Superior2. Inferior3. Anterior4. Posterior5. Medial6. Lateral7. Proximal8. Distal9. Superficial10. Deep
  22. 22. Homework: Fill out thechart on the body regions
  23. 23. Homework: Fill out thechart on the body regions
  24. 24. • There are tons of careers, some of them only require a short term of training. What are your goals?• See Explore Health Careers• Homework: Medical and Applied Science