Section A - ReadingQuestion 4: Language ComparisonApproaching and answeringQuestion 4
Language devices usedby non-fiction writers.Which can we recall? Ina different colour,suggest a typical effectof these dev...
Question 4: Language Comparison•16 marks•24 minutes, including active reading time•You need to identify 3 or 4 devices (te...
How is language used for effect?Language is always used for some kind of effect or other. Often, without commentingon spec...
Common linguistic devices• 1st, 2nd or 3rd person(narrative viewpoint)• Directly addressing thereader• Imperatives• Rhetor...
Some common linguistic devices. What are they?Example Name of LanguageDevice(s)“According to UK government calculations, 2...
Some common linguistic devices. What are they?Example Name of LanguageDevice(s)“According to UK government calculations, 2...
Question 4: A Model ResponseThe purpose of Text 1 is to inform Daily Echo readers about the achievements of Holly Budge an...
Question 4: A Model ResponseThe purpose of Text 1 is to inform Daily Echo readers about the achievements of Holly Budge an...
1. •Highlight the key words in the question.•The language question is always the same: It will ask you tocompare Text 3 (o...
2.IN GROUPS•Actively read the text: You are looking for particular parts ofthe text where language creates a certain effec...
2.Jigsaw ActivityWe noticed…Language is often emotive, sothe reader…Repetition is used…Facts and stats give authenticity…S...
3.•Now you’re ready to write up your ideas, you need aclear introductory sentence introducing each article. See the model ...
Connective The author / language in thetext…The reader…(or ‘we’…)FirstlySecondlyThirdlyAs well as thisFurthermoreMoreoverF...
Compare the different ways in whichlanguage is used for effect in the twotexts.Give some examples and analysewhat the effe...
Question 4: Language Comparison – Sample Mark Scheme
ON YOUR OWNCompare the different ways in whichlanguage is used for effect in the twotexts.Give some examples and analysewh...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Aqa lang. -_reading_question_4_-_comparison

5,874

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
5,874
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Remind students that the tools they need are, simply, a pen and a highlighter. As well as their brains and hard work!
  • Class brainstorm of linguistic devices that students can recall.
  • Ask students what they recall about this question.Remind them of the details on the slide.
  • Stress that this question is not merely a ‘hunt’ for language devices. Students still need to be showing a sound understanding of the articles, and can talk about the kind of language used (e.g. positive / negative, formal / informal, descriptive / factual, serious / humorous, dramatic / neutral etc.
  • Print a copy for students. Students can ‘audit’ their knowledge of these language features by highlighting the ones they think they would be confident in identifying (and, looking forward to the writing section, using themselves).
  • Starter or settling activity. Higher ability groups should be able to identify the language devices used in the short quotes in the example column.
  • Starter or settling activity.This handout includes prompts (language devices found in the examples which students can choose from).
  • Students should look at the model response on the next slide, addressing the above.
  • Model response. Notice that the two texts being written about are dealt with separately; comparison is made by use of connectives (in this case to show difference / contrast) and in the short concluding paragraph. Often, because of the fact that Source 3 is very different to Source 1 and Source 2, the effects are different. Higher ability students may make more explicit comparisons between the language of the two texts throughout their answer.
  • Remind students of Step 1 – reading the question and highlighting the key words.Stress that students will always be required to analyse Source 3 (typically a first-person story or narrative) with either Source 1 or Source 2 (typically news stories written in the third-person).
  • Step 2 is actively reading. Tell students to follow the steps above. For this question, students can briefly annotate highlighted sections with brief comments about the language used. Put students in an even number of groups, and have students in the class working on two articles which can be compared in a Question 4 answer.
  • Now create jigsaw groups, so half of students in new groups looked at one text, and the other half another text which they’ll be comparing with the other. Students to share ideas and discuss the effects of language features.
  • Remind students of the steps above while writing their response.
  • Students should ONLY use words / phrases they’re comfortable with. There’s no time to experiment!Column 1: Useful connectives to organise a response, and to compare and contrast. Column 2: Active verbs that may be used to explain / analyse.Column 3: Passive, and then active, sentence constructions that may be used when referring to the reader or audience.
  • Students can swap an attempt with someone else in the class for them to peer assess against the mark scheme.
  • Aqa lang. -_reading_question_4_-_comparison

    1. 1. Section A - ReadingQuestion 4: Language ComparisonApproaching and answeringQuestion 4
    2. 2. Language devices usedby non-fiction writers.Which can we recall? Ina different colour,suggest a typical effectof these devices.Hint: Think about Question 2
    3. 3. Question 4: Language Comparison•16 marks•24 minutes, including active reading time•You need to identify 3 or 4 devices (techniques, or features)used in two texts•Analyse the effect of some of these devices; comment onsimilarities and differences of the two texts
    4. 4. How is language used for effect?Language is always used for some kind of effect or other. Often, without commentingon specific linguistic devices, you can talk about the kind of language a writer uses,noticing what kind of words are used, or what kind of tone or style is created bylanguage and structure. Look at these examples…Powerful words such as “war”, “huge” and “ruining” emphasise andperhaps exaggerate the seriousness of the issue.The writer uses a chatty, informal tone, using contractions like “I’m”“don’t” and “can’t”.The writer uses dramatic and violent language in order to describe thehorror of the attack at the end of the extract. Phrases like “chill horror”,“sudden fear” and “thunderous crack” portray the fear and terrorexperienced by the Indians who are attacked.Language is highly descriptive, with adjectives such as “golden” and“spectacular” conveying the writer’s appreciation for his surroundings.
    5. 5. Common linguistic devices• 1st, 2nd or 3rd person(narrative viewpoint)• Directly addressing thereader• Imperatives• Rhetorical questions• Register - Formal/Informallanguage• Diction - Simple/Complexvocabulary• Figurative Language &Imagery: Similes/Metaphor/Personification etc.• Word play & puns• Alliteration• Rhyme & Rhythm• Anecdote & Allusion• Slogan & Catchphrase• Statistics & Facts• Exaggeration & Hyperbole• Repetition• Humour• Lists• Emotive language• Punctuation type• Expert advice• Short sentences• Superlatives
    6. 6. Some common linguistic devices. What are they?Example Name of LanguageDevice(s)“According to UK government calculations, 214 ofthe most senior eurocrats get paid more thanDavid Camerons £178,000 a year.”“Human lives are nothing but a series ofunfortunate upgrades. Yes, even yours.”“Starbucks wakes up and smells the stench of taxavoidance controversy”“Whos opposing the benefit cap? Whos calling fora ringfence of council tax benefits for families inneed? Whos arguing to maintain the child taxcredit threshold? Whos fighting against familiesbeing rehoused miles away from their childrensschool? Whos calling for more social housing?”“The ferry was packed with buses, petrol tanks,vans, land cruisers, jeeps, fuel tankers, cars – andpeople.”
    7. 7. Some common linguistic devices. What are they?Example Name of LanguageDevice(s)“According to UK government calculations, 214 ofthe most senior eurocrats get paid more thanDavid Camerons £178,000 a year.”“Human lives are nothing but a series ofunfortunate upgrades. Yes, even yours.”“Starbucks wakes up and smells the stench of taxavoidance controversy”“Whos opposing the benefit cap? Whos calling fora ringfence of council tax benefits for families inneed? Whos arguing to maintain the child taxcredit threshold? Whos fighting against familiesbeing rehoused miles away from their childrensschool? Whos calling for more social housing?”“The ferry was packed with buses, petrol tanks,vans, land cruisers, jeeps, fuel tankers, cars – andpeople.”Look out for: statistics and figures, directly addressing the reader, repetition,alliteration, personification, sibilance, lists, rhetorical questions, humour, exaggeration…
    8. 8. Question 4: A Model ResponseThe purpose of Text 1 is to inform Daily Echo readers about the achievements of Holly Budge and impress them with informationabout her accomplishments. Text 2 is a descriptive piece which tells readers about a significant event in the life of the narrator: anApache Indian. Readers will empathise with the narrator and respond with sympathy to the awful event described in the extract.Facts and statistics are used in Text 1 in order to stress the significance of Holly’s achievements. They serve an evidential purpose.Holly climbed “29,500 ft”; she has made “more than 2000 jumps”; she intends to “raise £30,000” for charity. This informationimpresses readers as the numbers involved are large and significant. These facts portray Holly as a brave and remarkable youngwoman who has singlehandedly achieved great things. The figures suggest that her feats are extraordinary.The superlative “highest” is repeated throughout the article. Holly climbed the world’s “highest mountain” as well as achieving the“highest drop zone” by a parachutist. The repetition of this word reinforces the idea that Holly’s exploits are unique and admirable.The article uses complex vocabulary: a diction exclusive to Holly’s profession which the reader may not be familiar with. The articleuses terms such as “high altitude”, “free fall” and “oxygen cylinder”. These technical terms are not common phrases, so they givefurther authenticity to the report.Unlike Text 1, Text 2 uses figurative language in order to describe the setting in the story and the narrator’s relationship with it. Inher first-person account, Landman talks of how a tree “lowers itself to greet me” and refers to its “spirit singing”. This use ofpersonification suggests that the narrator has a close, deep relationship with her environment; it portrays her as at peace with hersurroundings. This contrasts sharply with the distressing events later in the extract.In contrast to Text 1, Text 2 uses a list in order to portray the Apache Indians as admirable, multi skilled people who are in sync withtheir environment and daily lives. As well as “tending the fire, stirring a cooking pot”, a mother is stitching fabric and looking afterher children. Again, this harmonious description makes later events seem even more shocking and heightens the reader’s sympathy.Another difference between the texts is that Text 2 uses dramatic and violent language in order to describe the horror of the attackat the end of the extract. Phrases like “chill horror”, “sudden fear” and “thunderous crack” portray the fear and terror experienced bythe Indians who are attacked. This kind of language evokes sympathy in the reader, and perhaps revulsion at the attackers who havedisrupted the Apache’s harmonious existence.As both of these texts have such different purposes and evoke very different responses from readers, they use contrasting effects.Text 1 relies on effects which authenticate the story and impress the reader, such as facts, numbers and complex diction, whereasText 2, which elicits a far more emotional response, employs descriptive, dramatic and emotive language for effect.Now you know what kind of thing you need to write aboutin your response to Question 4, you are going to see amodel answer. Notice:•How the student introduces their answer•How many points about language are made for each text(Highlight language devices analysed!)•When and how the student compares and contrastsThen, look at the mark scheme and suggest a mark.Question 4: A Model Response
    9. 9. Question 4: A Model ResponseThe purpose of Text 1 is to inform Daily Echo readers about the achievements of Holly Budge and impress them with informationabout her accomplishments. Text 2 is a descriptive piece which tells readers about a significant event in the life of the narrator: anApache Indian. Readers will empathise with the narrator and respond with sympathy to the awful event described in the extract.Facts and statistics are used in Text 1 in order to stress the significance of Holly’s achievements. They serve an evidential purpose.Holly climbed “29,500 ft”; she has made “more than 2000 jumps”; she intends to “raise £30,000” for charity. This informationimpresses readers as the numbers involved are large and significant. These facts portray Holly as a brave and remarkable youngwoman who has singlehandedly achieved great things. The figures suggest that her feats are extraordinary.The superlative “highest” is repeated throughout the article. Holly climbed the world’s “highest mountain” as well as achieving the“highest drop zone” by a parachutist. The repetition of this word reinforces the idea that Holly’s exploits are unique and admirable.The article uses complex vocabulary: a diction exclusive to Holly’s profession which the reader may not be familiar with. The articleuses terms such as “high altitude”, “free fall” and “oxygen cylinder”. These technical terms are not common phrases, so they givefurther authenticity to the report.Unlike Text 1, Text 2 uses figurative language in order to describe the setting in the story and the narrator’s relationship with it. In herfirst-person account, Landman talks of how a tree “lowers itself to greet me” and refers to its “spirit singing”. This use ofpersonification suggests that the narrator has a close, deep relationship with her environment; it portrays her as at peace with hersurroundings. This contrasts sharply with the distressing events later in the extract.In contrast to Text 1, Text 2 uses a list in order to portray the Apache Indians as admirable, multi-skilled people who are in sync withtheir environment and daily lives. As well as “tending the fire, stirring a cooking pot”, a mother is stitching fabric and looking afterher children. Again, this harmonious description makes later events seem even more shocking and heightens the reader’s sympathy.Another difference between the texts is that Text 2 uses dramatic and violent language in order to describe the horror of the attackat the end of the extract. Phrases like “chill horror”, “sudden fear” and “thunderous crack” portray the fear and terror experienced bythe Indians who are attacked. This kind of language evokes sympathy in the reader, and perhaps revulsion at the attackers who havedisrupted the Apache’s harmonious existence.As both of these texts have such different purposes and evoke very different responses from readers, they use contrasting effects.Text 1 relies on effects which authenticate the story and impress the reader, such as facts, numbers and complex diction, whereasText 2, which elicits a far more emotional response, employs descriptive, dramatic and emotive language for effect.
    10. 10. 1. •Highlight the key words in the question.•The language question is always the same: It will ask you tocompare Text 3 (or ‘Source 3’) with either Text 1 or Text 2.•You need to be writing about how language is used in the twotexts, identifying and analysing language devices.Compare the different ways in which language is usedfor effect in the two texts.Give some examples and analyse what the effects are.Common purposes andeffects of non-fictionwriting
    11. 11. 2.IN GROUPS•Actively read the text: You are looking for particular parts ofthe text where language creates a certain effect, and serves the purpose ofthe article (e.g. to inform, persuade or describe).•Highlight words, phrases, passages, statisticsetc. that will help you answer the question.•You might like to annotate the texts very briefly with ideas that willhelp you answer the question.Compare the different ways in which language is used foreffect in the two texts.Give some examples and analyse what the effects are.
    12. 12. 2.Jigsaw ActivityWe noticed…Language is often emotive, sothe reader…Repetition is used…Facts and stats give authenticity…Similarly, expert advice…We think this is hyperbole…
    13. 13. 3.•Now you’re ready to write up your ideas, you need aclear introductory sentence introducing each article. See the model answerfor help.•Then, talk about how language is used for effect inone of the texts, and then the other (making brief comparisons with the oneyou’ve already written about). Conclude by giving reasons for similarities /differences.•Pepper your points with short quotes which give examples ofhow language is used for effect. They need to be analysed, as you need tosuggest how these effects are created by the writers.Writing up ideasIN PAIRS
    14. 14. Connective The author / language in thetext…The reader…(or ‘we’…)FirstlySecondlyThirdlyAs well as thisFurthermoreMoreoverFinallyLastlyLikewiseSimilarlyUnlikeAs well asIn contrast toAdvisesArguesBuildsConnotesContrastsConveysCreatesDemonstratesDescribesDepictsEmphasisesEvokesExaggeratesGives the impressionGives a senseHighlightsInformsImpliesIndicatesJuxtaposesNarratesPersuadesRealisesRecognisesRefers toReflectsRepresentsRevealsSignifiesSuggestsSymbolisesShowsTellsIs made awareIs informedIs toldIs shocked /fascinated /persuaded /made tosympathise etc.LearnsDiscoversRealises3.USEFUL WORDS & PHRASES
    15. 15. Compare the different ways in whichlanguage is used for effect in the twotexts.Give some examples and analysewhat the effects are.ON YOUR OWN
    16. 16. Question 4: Language Comparison – Sample Mark Scheme
    17. 17. ON YOUR OWNCompare the different ways in whichlanguage is used for effect in the twotexts.Give some examples and analysewhat the effects are.

    ×