Remind students that the tools they need are, simply, a pen and a highlighter. As well as their brains and hard work!
Ask students what they recall about this question.Remind them of the details on the slide.
Starter or settling activity. Higher ability groups should be able to deduce / infer the thoughts and feelings of these first-person narrators in the blank boxes.
Match-up starter or settling activity. Lower ability groups should match the short extract to the feelings. Through questioning, students should develop and explain their answers by justifying their choices.
Remind students of Step 1 – reading the question and highlighting the key words.On this slide are the questions past AQA exam papers. Notice that, although most questions ask students to explain the thoughts and feelings of a narrator, other kinds of questions are possible (as in the third example on the slide). When setting practice questions, it may be worthwhile to re-phrase the questioning to get students used to answering questions which are phrased differently (e.g. ‘Which parts of this text/story make you sympathise with…’ / ‘Explain which parts of the story contain suspense…’ etc.)
Step 2 is actively reading. Tell students to follow the steps above. For this question, students can briefly annotate highlighted sections with inferences.
In groups, students can highlight sections of the text which convey thoughts and feelings (i.e. small sections which will help them answer the question). As modelled on this slide, students may make brief annotations of inferences / deductions.
Remind students of the steps above while writing their response. I haven’t modelled the opening sentence as students should be in the habit of this now and we don’t want to dwell on it too much; in any case, purpose and audience are particularly hard to pin down when writing about Text 3.
Students should ONLY use words / phrases they’re comfortable with. There’s no time to experiment!Column 1: Useful connectives to organise a response (and ensure enough distinct points are being made). Column 2: Active verbs that may be used to explain / analyse.Column 3: Passive, and then active, sentence constructions that may be used when referring to the reader or audience.
Model A* response.
Model C response.
Students can swap their attempt with someone else in the class for them to peer assess against the mark scheme.
Transcript of "Aqa lang. -_reading_question_3"
Section A - ReadingQuestion 3: Inference and DeductionApproaching and answeringQuestion 3
Question 3: Inference and Deduction•8 marks•12 minutes on this question•You need to briskly analyse the language of the text toanswer the question•Discuss four or five points where the reader (i.e. you!) areable to ‘read between the lines’
Describe the thoughts and feelings of the narrator in the blank boxes…Text Inference / Deduction“We were on a mission. As we turned into our roadfrom the alleyway, a quiet buzzing sound drifted overus. We knew we were on our way.”“I jerked upright, the drifting aimless thoughtspushed away and replaced with a consuming angerat what had happened. I screamed at the wind.Swearing and yelling blind.”“I had had friends before but there was no one withwhom I could speak with such honesty as I could withAmolak.”“I was already unhappy with what I was seeing. Imcausing this to happen, I kept thinking. This pig hasbeen hand-fed for six months, fattened up - for me.”“I am being transported to that place, the vast placewhere the screams, voices, the bangs, the footstepscombine to make this painfully deafening confusingmush of sound. Although as we walk in the tears rundown my face, nobody seems to notice my terror.”
Match-up. Develop and explain…Text Inference / Deduction“We were on a mission. As we turned into our roadfrom the alleyway, a quiet buzzing sound drifted overus. We knew we were on our way.”Trust“I jerked upright, the drifting aimless thoughtspushed away and replaced with a consuming angerat what had happened. I screamed at the wind.Swearing and yelling blind.”Fear and apprehension“I had had friends before but there was no one withwhom I could speak with such honesty as I could withAmolak.”Frustration and anger“I was already unhappy with what I was seeing. Imcausing this to happen, I kept thinking. This pig hasbeen hand-fed for six months, fattened up - for me.”Excitement“I am being transported to that place, the vast placewhere the screams, voices, the bangs, the footstepscombine to make this painfully deafening confusingmush of sound. Although as we walk in the tears rundown my face, nobody seems to notice my terror.”Guilt
1. •Highlight the key words in the question. Usually, the questionasks you to explain some thoughts and feelings of a first-personnarrator.•Be aware, however, that you may be asked to infer and deduce ina different way. PAY CAREFUL ATTENTION TO THE QUESTION.Explain some of the thoughts and feelings Claire Francishas during the storm.Explain some of the thoughts and feelings ChristopherOndaatje has about his experience of Lake Victoria.Explain which parts of Pete Boardman’s story of thereturn to Camp 6 you find tenseand exciting.
2.IN GROUPS•Actively read the text: You are looking for particular parts ofthe text which you’ve been asked to write about in the question.•Next, go through the text, highlighting sections that will helpyou answer the question.•You might like to annotate the article very briefly with ideas that willhelp you answer the question.Ferry Across the Lake: Explain some of the thoughts and feelingsChristopher Ondaatje has about his experience of Lake Victoria.
FERRY ACROSS THE LAKE: On his journey to the source of the Nile, Christopher Ondaatje crosses part of Lake VictoriaFrom a past paper from AQAThinkingabout thepast andconnecting itto thepresentAdmiresthisplace
3.IN GROUPS•Now you’re ready to write up your ideas, youneed a clear introductory sentence introducing your response, as usual.Use the question to help you do this; turn it into a statement.•You then need to talk about each section you’vehighlighted. The question will tell you what to write about; don’t strayfrom this!•Pepper your points with short quotes that help you explainyour response. Do not copy large chunks of the text.Writing up ideas
Connective The author / language in thetext…The reader…(or ‘we’…)FirstlySecondlyThirdlyAs well as thisFurthermoreMoreoverFinallyLastlyLikewiseSimilarlyBuildsConnotesContrastsConveysCreatesDemonstratesDescribesDepictsEmphasisesEvokesExaggeratesExpressesGives the impressionGives a senseHighlightsInformsImpliesIndicatesNarratesRealisesRecognisesRefers toReflectsRevealsSignifiesSuggestsShowsTellsIs made awareIs informedIs toldLearnsDiscoversRealises3.USEFUL WORDS & PHRASES
A sample response from Question 3 (Explain some of the thoughts and feelings Christopher Ondaatje has about hisexperience of Lake Victoria.)In this extract, Christopher Ondaatje describes his visit to Lake Victoria. He experiences various thoughts and feelings during hisjourney.Firstly, in the opening paragraph, the author gives us the impression that he is thinking about both the present and the past. Hedescribes his location and what he can see before him, and reveals that Mwanza is a “vibrant African city” that is growing andbusy. Implying that this place is a living city, he states that it “seemed to grow as we watched”. Furthermore, he shows anawareness of the lake being much older and having played a role in “the great explorations of the past”. This conveys to thereader the fact that Ondaatje has a sense of the lake’s history and its importance as a landmark for previous travellers.The second paragraph suggests to us that our narrator is overcome by the beauty of nature. He portrays where he is as an“idyllic spot” and then goes on to describe the sounds of the birds, the beauty of the sunrise and the sound of the lake. Hissenses are informing his feelings here; what he sees and hears are all conveyed very positively and he claims waking here would“be a good way to start every morning”.However, as Ondaatje describes the travellers’ wait to catch the ferry to cross the lake, the language he uses hints that he is nolonger in control of the situation. Passengers have to rely on the local system, which is not very reliable, and there is doubt thatthey will even get on the ferry. The previous idyllic setting is now contrasted by the discomfort of the day getting “hotter andhotter”. The description of conditions on the ferry shows the passengers’ discomfort only gets worse, calling the setting “hotas hell – and getting hotter.” Moreover, worse than the discomfort he feels is his knowledge that a similar ferry sank or “wentdown” a year or so earlier with loss of life. Ondaatje’s anxiety is shown in that he realises there is no system of controlling theamount of weight taken on by the ferry and that it is also an old ferry which he depicts as “decrepit”. The thought of this pasttragedy and the disorganisation he is witnessing causes him to worry and feel anxious.Lastly, in the the final paragraph, the writer describes the sound and movement of the ferry; again he is impressed by what hecan see of nature but there is also a sense of disbelief that the heavily laden ferry is managing to move. When he sees the“teeming mass” of a crowd waiting to board on the other side of the lake he realises that this crossing is an everydayoccurrence for the locals and that they are continuing to use it in spite of any concerns about safety; as he is viewing the safetyaspect from the point of view of somebody used to a culture of stringent health and safety rules he is clearly feeling anxiousand worried while the locals seem to take the situation in their stride.A*
A sample response from Question 3 (Explain some of the thoughts and feelings Christopher Ondaatje has about hisexperience of Lake Victoria.)In this extract, Christopher Ondaatje describes his visit to Lake Victoria. He experiences various thoughts andfeelings during his journey.Firstly, in the opening paragraph, the author describes his location and what he can see before him, and revealsthat Mwanza is a “vibrant African city”. This suggests that he likes and admires this busy place – he alsodescribes it as “huge and beautiful”. The lake makes him think about the past and how the “mighty” lake wasimportant to “past explorations”.Secondly, Ondaatje tells us that he finds the place an “idyllic spot” with a “spectacular sunrise” which impliesthat he finds the setting beautiful. He uses his senses when he describes the sounds of the birds and thescenery around him and he finds the setting peaceful and calming. He even says he would like to wake up inthis place “every morning”.When Ondaatje describes the travellers’ wait to catch the ferry to cross the lake, we are made aware that he isuncomfortable and frustrated. The ferry is late and the weather is getting “hotter and hotter” which makesthings worse. When he is on the actual ferry the author seems to become more uncomfortable when hedescribes it as “hot as hell – and getting hotter”. “Hell” has very negative connotations, so we can infer that heis not enjoying himself. Moreover, Ondaatje tells us that in the past a ferry “went down” which suggests to usthat he is perhaps worried and anxious.Lastly, at the end of the text the writer describes the sound and movement of the ferry and he says that“somehow the craft stayed afloat” which reveals that he cannot believe that the boat has not sank. When hereaches the bay Ondaatje feels relieved as he claims the passengers “felt a bit of breeze at last”.C
Question 3: Inference and Deduction – Sample Mark Scheme