Minerals

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Minerals

  1. 1. Minerals
  2. 2. What is a mineral? <ul><li>Inorganic – not alive </li></ul><ul><li>Solid – not liquid, or gas </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally occurring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not formed by man, but nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Definite chemical composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements always the same, with known arrangement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Definite crystal shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating pattern of atoms in 3D </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Formation of Minerals <ul><li>Magma cooling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow cooling – large crystals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast cooling – small crystals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very fast cooling - no crystals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution evaporation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salts and geodes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Si, Al,Ca, K, O 2 , Fe, Na, Mg </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Minerals Everyday <ul><li>Mineralogists – study minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks are combinations of minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Ores - rocks from which valuable minerals are removed (usually metals) </li></ul><ul><li>Gems – rare, “pretty,” not soft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diamonds, rubies, emeralds </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Luster <ul><li>Way the surface reflects light </li></ul><ul><li>General: Metallic and Non-metallic </li></ul><ul><li>More specific: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitreous (glassy) -- example: quartz, tourmaline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adamantine (brilliant) -- example: diamond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resinous (like resin or sap from a tree) -- example: sphalerite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greasy or waxy -- example: turquoise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pearly -- example: talc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silky -- example: asbestos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dull or earthy -- example: bauxite </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Crystal Shape <ul><li>Arrangement of atoms form crystal structure </li></ul><ul><li>Types- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cubic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthorhombic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetragonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hexagonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triclinic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monoclinic </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Color <ul><li>Easily identifiable trait – but,not reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Color can change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impurties - Yellow diamonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidation – rusting, tarnish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weathering </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Streak <ul><li>mineral is rubbed firmly across a white tile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it leaves a line of powder. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>color of the streak is always the same </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quartz leaves a white streak, whether it's violet (amethyst), pink (rose quartz), or brown (smoky quartz). </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Transparency <ul><li>how well light passes through a mineral </li></ul><ul><li>Three degrees of transparency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparent – you can see through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translucent – see light , but not objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opaque - can't see anything </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Hardness <ul><li>Mohs Hardness Scale - 1812 </li></ul><ul><li>Scale used to tell how hard (10) or soft (1) a mineral is </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used substitutes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingernail – 2.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penny – 3.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass – 5.5 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Diamond (C) 10 Corundum (Al 2 O 3 ) 9 Topaz (Al 2 SiO 4 (OH-,F-) 2 ) 8 Quartz (SiO 2 ) 7 Orthoclase Feldspar (KAlSi 3 O 8 ) 6 Apatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH-,Cl-,F-)) 5 Fluorite (CaF 2 ) 4 Calcite (CaCO 3 ) 3 Gypsum (CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O) 2 Talc (Mg 3 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 ) 1 Mineral Hardness
  12. 12. Used in jewelry and cutting tools. Four times as hard as corundum. Diamond 10 Sapphire and ruby are varieties of corundum. Twice as hard as topaz. Corundum 9 The November birthstone. Emerald and aquamarine are varieties of beryl with a hardness of 8. Topaz 8   Quartz 7 Orthoclase is a feldspar, and in German, &quot;feld&quot; means &quot;field&quot;. Orthoclase 6 When you are hungry you have a big &quot;appetite&quot;. Apatite 5 Fluorine in fluorite prevents tooth decay. Fluorite 4 Limestone and most shells contain calcite. Calcite 3 Plaster of paris. Gypsum is formed when seawater evaporates from the Earth’s surface. Gypsum 2 Talcum powder. Talc 1 Associations and Uses Mineral Hardness
  13. 13. Hardness of some other items: Hardened steel file 7+ Iron pyrite 6.5 Glass 6-7 Knife blade 5.5 Iron 4-5 Platinum 4-4.5 Copper penny 3 Gold, Silver 2.5–3 Fingernail 2.5
  14. 14. Cleavage <ul><li>When broken minerals break along planes of weakness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to crystalline structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some break along 1 plane, others 2 planes </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. Fracture <ul><li>The way a mineral without cleavage breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Not all minerals cleave easily </li></ul><ul><li>Some fracture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be smoothly curved, irregular, jagged or splintery. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Specific Gravity is the ratio of the density of a material compared to the density of water 1g/ml. Materials greater than 1 will sink. Materials less will float. <ul><li>Density of the mineral </li></ul>4-6 Heavy Cordrundum, most metals 19 Heaviest Gold, platinum 3-4 Medium Heavy Fluorite, beryl 2-3 Medium Quartz 1-2 Light Graphite Specific Gravity Density Mineral
  17. 21. Special Properties to ID minerals <ul><li>Taste – salt, NaCl </li></ul><ul><li>Smell – sulfur, S </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic – magnetite </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent – glow in the dark (UV) </li></ul><ul><li>Optical double vision - calcite </li></ul>

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