US History: Goal 5 & 7
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US History: Goal 5 & 7

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Urbanization, Industry, Progressives

Urbanization, Industry, Progressives

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US History: Goal 5 & 7 US History: Goal 5 & 7 Presentation Transcript

  • U.S. History: Goals 5 and 7
  • The Gilded Age A. Gilded Age: Coined by Mark Twain. Golden period for industrialists covering dark times of poverty and corruption.
  • Immigration: Types and Where B. Old Immigrants: Those who were English speaking and had a history of voting. Central and Northwest Europe. C. New Immigrants: Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe. D. Ellis Island: Most came through “Golden Door” in New York City. E. Angel Island: Asian immigrants came through in San Francisco.
  • Immigrants: Housing F. Urban Areas: Often settled in urban areas established by settlers from their homeland. G. Ghettos: Areas were one ethnic or racial group dominated. Familiar language and traditions.
  • Immigrants: Issues H. Piecework System: Paid by how much could be produced not by the hour. I. Sweatshops: Employees worked for long hours for low wages in poor conditions.
  • Immigrants: Issues J. Chinese Exclusion Act: Excludes Chinese from work force.
  • Migrants K. Great Migration: Many African Americans move North after Reconstruction. South suppressed rights and jobs.
  • Factories Immigrants, Migrants, and other citizens work in factories. Assembly and products no longer done in homes or shops.
  • Factories: Positives L. Assembly Line: Each worker does a specialized task in the construction of a final product. Henry Ford makes more efficient. Ford pays employees $5 a day and enrolls foreign workers in schools to assimilate. M. Model T: Marketable lightweight, gas powered car.
  • Factories: Other Positives N. Kodak Camera: Takes still pictures. O. Movie Camera: Takes moving pictures. P. Wright Brothers: Take first successful flight at Kitty Hawk, NC. Q. Mail Order Catalogs: Rise in goods being purchased through mail.
  • Factories: Negatives R. Pay: Workers overworked and underpaid. S. Child Laborers: 20% of children between 10 and 16 employed. Sometimes as young as 6 or 7. T. Triangle Shirtwaist Fire: 146 young girls killed when fire break out in factory. Pushed people to reform. U. Slaughterhouses: Poor conditions for workers, contaminated meats .
  • Factories: Negatives V. Alcohol: Alcoholism soars and people begin drinking more. Especially after long hours in the factories.
  • Labor Workers want better working conditions, increased wages, and shorter hours. W. Knights of Labor: Organized all working men (black and white) to reform for equal pay, 8 hour work day, end to child labor. X. American Federation of Labor: Allowed only skilled workers to join and used collective bargaining. Samuel Gompers. Y. Yellow Dog Contracts: workers had to promise to never join a union or go on strike.
  • Labor Many unions and workers resorted to striking or refusing to go to work to reform. Z. Great Railroad Strike: Workers strike when B&O Railroad announce wage cuts of 10%. Workers and military clash. 1877. A1. Haymarket Riot: Strikers demand 8 hour work day. Fight breaks out and a bomb is thrown, police dies. Unionists and Anarchists named heroes.
  • Labor Many unions and workers resorted to striking or refusing to go to work to reform. B2. Homestead Strike: Wages cut at Carnegie Steel. Strike begins and anarchist attempts to assassinate Carnegie’s partner. Publics stops supporting Unions. C3. Pullman Strike: Pullman lays off workers and cuts pay by 25%. American Railway Union led by Eugene V. Debs goes on strike. Grover Cleveland breaks strike.
  • Progressives People who sought to protect social welfare, moral improvements, economic reforms, and promote efficiency. Muckrakers: Journalists who wrote about the corruption of business and public life in the 20 th century. Politicians/Presidents: Those who sought to reform the government. Citizens: Concerned Americans who wanted change.
  • Progressive Response: Labor, Food, Alcohol Labor: D4. Florence Kelley: Advocate for improving the lives of women and children. E5. Scientific Management: Studies to make the workplace more efficient. Food: F6. Upton Sinclair: Writes The Jungle exposing the harsh treatment of workers in the meat packing industry. Muckraker. G7. Pure Food and Drug Act: Halted sale of contaminated foods and drugs. Created labeling. 1906. Alcohol: H8. Carrie Nation: Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). Entered saloons, singing, praying. I9. 18th Amendment (Volstead Act): Banned the production, sale, or import of alcohol. – Prohibition.
  • Urbanization Cities began to grow rapidly and increase in size and population.
  • Urbanization: Positives J10. Transportation: Trains, cable cars, electric trolleys, and automobiles make transportation easier. K11. Suburbs: Transportation allows people to live outside of cities and commute. M12. Bessemer Process: Makes it possible to mass produce steel – Skyscrapers are created. N13. Elevator: Allowed for building of high-rises in cities.
  • Urbanization: Positives O14. Indoor Electricity: Invented by Thomas Edison, 1865. P15. Oil: Used for power, discovered by Edwin L. Drake. R16. Phone: Alexander Graham Bell. By 1900, 1.5 million in use. S17. Typewriter: Creates jobs for women.
  • Urbanization: Positives T18. Coney Island’s Luna Park: Amusement Park. U19. Sports: Spectator sports such as baseball, basketball, and football.
  • Urbanization: Negatives V20. Tenements: Low cost apartment buildings housed as many families as the owner could pack in. W21. Great Chicago Fire: 1871, 18,000 buildings burn, 250 people died, 100,000 homeless. X22. Dumbbell Tenements: Created to let every room have a window and allow air flow.
  • Progressives People who sought to protect social welfare, moral improvements, economic reforms, and promote efficiency. Muckrakers: Journalists who wrote about the corruption of business and public life in the 20 th century. Politicians/Presidents: Those who sought to reform the government. Citizens: Concerned Americans who wanted change.
  • Progressive Response: Housing Housing Y23. Jacob Riis: wrote “How the Other Half Lives.” Hoped to gain support to reform tenement houses. Muckraker. Z24. Settlement Houses: Homes for the poor that provided housing, childcare, and education. 25. Jane Addams: Hull House. Built to improve urban slums/ghettos.
  • New Business Ventures 26. Industrialization: the building up of industries, cities, and factories. 27. Vertical Integration: Owning every phase of production of a product. 28. Horizontal Integration: Taking over an industry by owning all of the businesses on the same level. Used by industrialists of the 1800’s.
  • New Business Ventures 29. Oligopoly: market dominated by a few large companies. 30. Monopoly: One company has complete control over the market. 31. Trust: Trusts allowed companies to come together under board of trustees but not officially merge. Businessmen of the 1800’s typically used these.
  • Robber Barons v. Captains of Industry 32. Robber Barons: Someone who steals their money from the public. Drives competitors into ground. Paid workers meager wages. 33. Captains of Industry: Served nation in positive way. Raised productivity, created jobs, established museums, libraries, etc .
  • Robber Barons v. Captains of Industry 34. John D. Rockefeller: Created Standard Oil Company. Questionable practices but gave $500 million to charities. Vertical integration 35. Andrew Carnegie: Steel Tycoon. Preached “Gospel of Wealth” – make as much money as possible but give some away. 36. Social Darwinism: Wealthy most valuable group in society. Survival of the fittest. Horizontal integration
  • Progressives People who sought to protect social welfare, moral improvements, economic reforms, and promote efficiency. Muckrakers: Journalists who wrote about the corruption of business and public life in the 20 th century. Politicians/Presidents: Those who sought to reform the government. Citizens: Concerned Americans who wanted change.
  • Progressive Response - Industry Industry: 37. Ida Tarbell: The History of the Standard Oil Company. Investigated and unveiled corruption in Standard Oil. 38. Sherman Antitrust Act: Outlawed any combo of companies that restrained interstate commerce. 1890. 39. Clayton Anti-Trust Act: Strengthens Sherman Antitrust Act. 1914. 40. Federal Trade Act: Federal Trade Commission, investigated possible violation of regulation.
  • Political Bosses Clashing interests between different community groups led to the rise of political machines. 41. Political Machine: Unofficial Organization set up to keep a group in power. Run by a boss who worked for favors. 42. William “Boss” Tweed: Most notorious boss in NYC. Illegally used money from treasury for building.
  • Progressives
  • Progressive Response: Political Bosses 43. Thomas Nast: Political cartoonist who exposed Boss Tweed through political cartoons.
  • Political Corruption 44. Laissez-Faire: Hands off approach to the economy. 45. Credit Mobilier: Stockholders in Union Pacific create construction company and jack up prices on railroad building. Pocketed money. 46. Whiskey Ring Scandal: Tax collectors accepted bribes from whiskey distillers who wanted to avoid paying taxes.
  • Political Corruption 47. Spoils System: President Garfield killed by unhappy office seeker.
  • Progressive Response: Political Corruption 48. Lincoln Steffens: Uncovered political corruption in St. Louis and other cities. 49. Pendleton Civil Service Act: Must pass exam to become a worker in the national government. Ended Spoils System Jackson had created. 50. Direct Primary: People voted for nominees in upcoming election. 51. Initiatives: propose a new law directly on ballot. 52. Referendums: Citizens reject law passed by legislature. 53. Recall: Voters can remove officials from office.
  • Progressive Response: Political Corruption 54. 16th Amendment: Allowed federal government to collect income taxes. 55. 17th Amendment: Direct election of senators. 56. Federal Reserve Act: Created Federal Reserve System of banks to supervise private banks.
  • Progressive Presidents: Roosevelt 57. Bull Moose Party: Direct election, initiatives, referendum, recall, women’s rights, 8 hour work day, etc. 58. Roosevelt: Saw presidency as “bully pulpit” and influenced media and news. 59. Square Deal: programs to protect people from big business. 60. Elkins Act: Illegal for railroad officials to give rebates. 1903.
  • Progressive Presidents: Roosevelt 61. Civil Rights: Invited Booker T. Washington to White House. 62. W.E.B. DuBois: founded National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
  • Progressive Presidents – Taft 63. Payne-Aldrich Tariff: Set tax regulations. Failed to significantly reduce tariffs on manufactured goods. 64. Republican Party: splits after disagreements with Taft’s administration.
  • Progressive Presidents – Wilson 65. New Freedom: stronger anti-trust legislation, banking reform, reduced tariff. 66. 19th Amendment: Women gain right to vote.