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Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction

Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction

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  • 1. Goal 3
  • 2. A. Know-Nothings: - Early nativist group opposed to immigration of Irish and Germans. - “I know nothing.” - Accepted only native-born Protestants. - B. Free Soil Party: - - Opposed the extension of slavery into territories. - Supported internal improvements.
  • 3. C. Slave Codes: - Laws defining the status of slaves and the rights of their masters.
  • 4. D. Abolitionist Movement: - Aimed at eliminating slavery.
  • 5. E. Underground Railroad: - Network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada. F. Harriet Tubman: - Runaway slave who helped lead other escaped slaves to freedom on Underground Railroad.
  • 6. G. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: - Book that unveiled the evils of slavery. - Caused much tension between the North and South. - Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. - Lincoln: “Little lady who started this big war.”
  • 7. H. Compromise of 1850: - Series of law to settle major disagreements between the free and slaves states. Fugitive Slave Act: - Escaped slaves found in north must be returned to his or her owner. - Part of Compromise of 1850 I. -
  • 8. J. Kansas – Nebraska Act: - Kansas and Nebraska would get to vote on the issue of slavery. - Popular sovereignty: states decide.
  • 9. K. Bleeding Kansas: - Pro-slavers, Free-states, and Abolitionists in Kansas. - Violence broke out between the groups and continued until 1861.
  • 10. L. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857): - Supreme court ruled that slaves were property. - Could go to free state and still be a slave. - Made Missouri Compromise unconstitutional.
  • 11. M. Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858): - Lincoln believed slavery was wrong but “necessary evil.” - Douglas believed in idea of popular sovereignty. N. Freeport Doctrine: - Douglas: “Authorities had right to enforce federal law as it saw fit.”
  • 12. O. Harper’s Ferry (1859): - Abolitionist John Brown and group attempted raid at federal arsenal. - Hoped to supply slaves with weapons and begin revolt. - 8 men died and slavery issue continued.
  • 13. P. Election of 1860: - Abraham Lincoln elected president. - Was not on ballot in South. - Final straw for South and South seceded.
  • 14. Q. Secession - South Carolina secedes first. - Four border states remain between North and South. - Union: Primarily states without slavery. (North) - Confederacy: States that seceded (South).
  • 15. R. Fort Sumter: - First shots of the Civil War fired by Confederate troops. S. Jefferson Davis: - Becomes president of the Confederacy.
  • 16. T. Copperheads: - Northerners who opposed the war and wanted peace.
  • 17. U. Union (North): - Strategy: - Anaconda Plan (suffocate Confederacy and preserve Union). - Military: - Underprepared, needed training, poor leadership. - Economy: - 22 million people, 23 - Leaders: - Lincoln, McClellan, Grant, and Sherman. states, 85% of nation’s factories, 90% of skilled workers, railroads, 10+ major cities.
  • 18. V. Confederacy (South): - Strategy: - Outlast the north, defend home soil, preserve slavery. - Military: - Leaders: - Economy: - Davis, Lee, Jackson - 9 million people, 11 - Strong military leaders and soldiers used to outdoor life, guns, terrain, etc. states, farming and agriculture, no loans or direct taxes, 1 major city.
  • 19. - W. First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas: - First major battle of the Civil War. - Confederates win. - July, 1861.
  • 20. - X. Antietam: - Bloodiest single day in American history. - 26,000 people died. - September 1862.
  • 21. -Y. Emancipation Proclamation: - Lincoln orders all slaves behind enemy lines to be freed. - Gave moral cause to the war. - January 1863.
  • 22. Z. Vicksburg: - Grant attacked 2 confederate holdouts on the Mississippi River. - South surrendered to Grant. - Confederacy cut in half. - April – July 1863
  • 23. - A1. Gettysburg: - Union wins three day battle and the south never invades again. - July 1863.
  • 24. - B2. Gettysburg Address: - Speech given by Lincoln at the dedication of a cemetery at Gettysburg. - Lincoln: “Government of the People, By the People, For the People.” - November 1863.
  • 25. C3. Sherman’s March: - Sherman (Union) marches north from Atlanta to sea and wages total war. - Destroys everything in 10 mile wide path. - Also destroys South’s morale. - 1864.
  • 26. - D5. Writ of Habeas Corpus: - Suspended by Lincoln. - People could be jailed without knowing why.
  • 27. - E6. Appomattox Courthouse: - Confederates surrender to the Union at the end of the war. - Grant requires unconditional surrender. - 1865.
  • 28. - F7. John Wilkes Booth: - Shoots and kills President Lincoln at Ford’s Theater in Washington, DC. - Five days after Confederate surrender. - April 14, 1865.
  • 29. -G8: Congressional Reconstruction: - Wanted strict rules for allowing southern states back in the Union. - Abolish slavery, give ALL men right to vote, ratify 14th Amendment, ban those who supported confederacy from voting, and put south under military rule. - Led by Thaddeus Stevens and Radical Republicans.
  • 30. -H9: Presidential Reconstruction: - Lenient toward South. - Wanted to abolish slavery, pardon southerners who swore allegiance to the Union, hold constitutional convention, allow states to hold elections to rejoin Union, repay confederate debt. - Led by Andrew Johnson.
  • 31.  I10: Tenure of Office Act: - Johnson violates. - Said that president cannot fire any officeholder without Senate finding replacement.
  • 32. J11: Freedman’s Bureau: - Set up to help former slaves.
  • 33. K12: Sharecroppers: -Farmers who paid land owners with a share of their crops.
  • 34. L13: Tenant Farmers: - Rent paid to landowner for use of their land, tenant farmer would then keep and/or sell goods produced. - More freedom than sharecropping.
  • 35. M14: Hayes-Tilden Compromise of 1877: - Ended Reconstruction. - Put Republican Hayes into office as president in election of 1876. - Removed all troops from the South. - Ended military rule.
  • 36. N15: Black Codes: - A way to inhibit the freedom of ex-slaves. - Controlled almost all aspects of life. - Prohibited African Americans from freedom that had been won during Reconstruction.
  • 37. O16. Jim Crow Laws: - Laws legally segregating African Americans.
  • 38. P17: Grandfather Clause: - Voting restrictions on those who had not vote before. - Could only vote if grandfather had been allowed to vote.
  • 39. R18: Ku Klux Klan: - Whites against “aggressions of an inferior race.” - Purpose to “defend social and political superiority.” - Used fear and violence to achieve goals. - Formed in 1866 and Congress is unable to enforce anti-KKK laws.
  • 40. S19: 10TH Amendment: - Governmental powers not listed in the Constitution for national powers the states can have.
  • 41. T20. 13th Amendment: - Outlawed/abolished slavery in United States.
  • 42. U21. 14th Amendment: - Stated that all citizens have certain rights and defined citizenship.
  • 43. V22. 15th Amendment: - Stated that no one could be denied the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  • 44. W23. Civil Rights Act of 1866: - Any person born in the U.S. now a citizen regardless of race or previous conditions. - Could make and enforce contracts, sue and be sued, give evidence in court, and inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property.
  • 45. Scalawags: - Southern whites who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party. Carpetbaggers: - Northerners who came to the South to take advantage of its destruction. Hiram Revels: - First African American to serve in Congress. Takes Jefferson Davis’ seat.
  • 46. Do Now: Look at the picture to the right. Answer the following: What do you see? 2) What does it mean? 3) How do you know? 1)
  • 47. Review: 1) Take out all of your notes for the Civil War. 2) Get with a partner, turn your desk to face them, quiz them on your notes. 3) DO NOT talk to other groups or distract them.
  • 48. 1) Answer as many questions as you can on the review packet without using your notes. 2) Once you have done this use your notes to help you fill in the rest. 3) We will go over this as a class.
  • 49. 1) Visit this website to play the “Rags to Riches” Game: http://www.quia.com/rr/7 94618.html Quia.com/rr/794618.html
  • 50. - Put up notes. - Get into pairs. - Get a marker board, marker, and piece of tissue. - Write the correct answer on your board and flip when I say so. - Pair with most wins will get favorite candy tomorrow.
  • 51. In the Compromise of 1877 following a disputed presidential election, leaders promised to: a. b. c. d. withdraw federal troops from the South. maintain reconstruction goals. deny African Americans voting rights. recount all the ballots.
  • 52. By the end of the 1870s most freedmen: a. b. c. d. were landowners. had moved out of the South were sharecroppers. were going to school to learn a trade.
  • 53. Andrew Johnson’s vetoes of these bills ended all attempts by moderate Republicans to work with him: a. b. c. d. Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments Freedmen’s Bureau Bill and Civil Rights Act Black Codes Wade-Davis Bill and Reconstruction Act
  • 54. The basic goal of the Black Codes passed in southern states was to: a. b. c. d. keep freedmen dependent on the plantation. attempt to restore slavery. help freedmen start new businesses. provide black families with jobs.
  • 55. John Wilkes Booth thought that by assassinating the president he would: a. help the Republican Congress control the government.. b. help the South win the Civil War. c. prevent Reconstruction from going forward. d. stop the draft.
  • 56. By the end of the Civil War property losses in the South: a. b. c. d. were limited to the plantations. were almost entirely in the cities. affected everything but the cities. affected farms, cities, and transportation.
  • 57. What did members of terrorist groups that operated in the South after the Civil War have in common? a. a desire to remove President Lincoln from office b. support of the Republican Party c. a desire to reach political goals through the courts d. a desire to undo the South’s new hierarchy and restore the old social and political order
  • 58. How did sharecropping and tenant farming differ? a. Sharecroppers received a share of their employer’s crop; tenant farmers rented land and could grow any crops they chose. b. Sharecroppers were former slaves; tenant farmers were poor southern whites. c. Sharecroppers rented land and could grow any crops they chose; tenant farmers owned small plots of land and grew exclusively cash crops. d. Sharecroppers worked land owned by a group of former slaves; tenant farmers worked for wages.
  • 59. Which African American took the Senate seat formerly held by Confederate president Jefferson Davis? a. James Longstreet b. Hiram Revels c. Thaddeus Stevens d. Wendell Phillips
  • 60. According to the provisions of the Ten-Percent Plan, southern states could be readmitted to the Union: a. if fewer than 10 percent of residents refused to take a loyalty oath. b. after 10 years had passed. c. once 10 percent of the state’s Confederate government members had been arrested. d. when 10 percent of voters had pledged loyalty to the Union.
  • 61. The ___ was a Grant victory that assured Union control of the Mississippi River. a. b. c. d. Battle of Chickamauga Battle of Chattanooga Siege of Vicksburg Siege of Atlanta
  • 62. What ended Reconstruction in the South? a. b. c. d. Abraham Lincoln’s assassination the Compromise of 1877 passage of the Fifteenth Amendment passage of the Southern Homestead Act
  • 63. After Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House: a. the war ended immediately. b. the war continued for some time after. c. Jefferson Davis resigned. d. Abraham Lincoln called for retribution against the South.
  • 64. The Battle of Bull Run was evidence that: a. b. c. d. the war would not be short. the Southern army was well-trained. the North would eventually win. Lincoln had a competent general.
  • 65. General Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan for winning the war called for the Union to: a. b. c. d. capture Richmond. win the support of Southern leaders. arm the slaves. blockade southern ports.
  • 66. Why did President Lincoln issue the Emancipation Proclamation? a. because he morally opposed slavery b. because freeing the slaves would weaken the Confederate war effort c. because slaves had earned their freedom by fighting for the Union d. because the prisons were getting too full
  • 67. During his March to the Sea, General Sherman destroyed much of Georgia because he wanted to: a. exact revenge on the South. b. prevent civilians from taking up arms against Union armies. c. show that Union armies could do as they wished in the South and that further resistance was futile. d. help President Lincoln get re-elected.
  • 68. What ended slavery throughout the United States? a. b. c. d. the Emancipation Proclamation the Thirteenth Amendment the surrender at Appomattox the Fourteenth Amendment