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Goal 10 ppt Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  Causes of WWII:  1.Treaty of Versailles (WWI) too harsh.  2.Totalitarian Leaders: Stalin, Mussolini, Hitler  3.Kellog-Briand Pact  4.The Munich Pact: (Policy of appeasement)  5.Spanish Civil War: Fascism Spreads.
  • 2. - Treaty of Versailles very harsh toward Germany. - No army to protect itself, had to pay hefty fines, and caused a depression.
  • 3. - Totalitarianism: A type of government in which all social, political, economic, intellectual, and cultural activities are controlled by the rulers of a state. Fascism: authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline - - Stalin (Russia), Mussolini (Italy), Hitler (Germany)
  • 4. - Made war illegal. This failed because there was no way to enforce the law.
  • 5. - Munich Pact: It permitted immediate occupation by Germany of the Sudetenland, a region of Czechoslovakia - Appeasement: the policy of granting concessions to potential enemies in order maintain peace
  • 6. Fascism spreads. - Francisco Franco comes to power. Releases gasses and uses weapons on residents. - Preview of war to come. - -
  • 7.  Non-Aggression Pact: Between Germany and the Soviet Union. 1. Agreed not to fight each other 2. Agreed to split Poland   September 1st, 1939: Germany invades Poland September 3rd, 1939: France and Great Britain declare war on Germany  1. Early Battles: The Battle of Dunkirk: - English and French soldiers surrounded on the beach - Hitler did not act fast enough- Mistake?? 1. Battle of Britain: - RAF vs. Luftwaffa - Every night for 2 months Britain was bombed - Eventually called off by Hitler
  • 8. The Holocaust: 1. Hitler wanted to create racial purity in Germany 2. Anti-Semitism 3. Nuremberg Laws 4. Kristallnacht 5. Movement into the ghettos 6. Concentration Camps 7. Genocide 8. The Final Solution 9. Auschwitz 10. Nuremberg Trials 11. Over 6 million Jews were killed during the Holocaust 
  • 9. Hatred/Feelings of negativity toward Jewish race. Hitler blamed the Jews for all of Germany’s issues. - -
  • 10. - Jews placed under restrictions. - Had curfews. Had to wear “Stars of David” to identify themselves. - - Transported to ghettos or Jewish-only neighborhoods.
  • 11. - “Night of Broken Glass” Jews attacked, houses of worship robbed, businesses destroyed.
  • 12. - Moved Jews into Jewish only neighborhoods with filthy conditions and little food. - Taken to concentration camps to work and to become part of “Final Solution.”
  • 13. - Killing off/destroying one ethnic group. - Final Solution: Send all Jews in Europe to gas chambers.
  • 14. - Most notorious concentration camp. More than a million Jews gassed, shot, worked to death, and cremated. -
  • 15. Trials of the Nazi commanders for the crimes on humanity of the Holocaust. 12 were sentenced to be hanged, showing that leaders must be held responsible for their actions. -
  • 16. Allies o Joseph Stalin – Russia (Communist) o Winston Churchill – Great Britain (Democracy) o Franklin D. Roosevelt – United States (Democracy) Axis Powers o Emperor Hirohito – Japan (Militarism) o Benito Mussolini – Italy (Fascist) o Adolf Hitler – Germany (Fascist)
  • 17. Stalin Churchill Roosevelt
  • 18. Hirohito Mussolini Hitler
  • 19. - Neutrality – did not want to be involved in another world war. - Neutrality Acts: - 1. Cannot provide weapons to other nations - 2. Banned loans to other nations - 3. Permitted trade to other countries: only non military goods Country must pay cash and pay for transporting he goods = “cash and carry policy” - The Lend-Lease Act: (1941) Authorized the President (FDR) to aid nations whose defense was vital to the protection of American security. - December 7th, 1941: Invasion of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese
  • 20. Neutrality Acts (1935) - Passed by the United States prior to their entry into WWII, these acts forbade giving any type of aid to countries at war. Speech (1937) – a speech by FDR which called for an international “quarantine of aggressor nations” through economic pressure.  Quarantine
  • 21. Four Freedoms (1941) – a speech by FDR that stated that people all over the world should have (1) freedom of speech (2) freedom of religion (3) freedom from want (4) freedom from fear. Lend-Lease Act (March 1941)– This Act basically repealed the Neutrality Acts, allowing the united states to aid any country that they saw as essential to US security.
  • 22. In December of 1941, Japan attacked a US military base in Pearl Harbor, HI. This became the immediate cause of the US’s entry into WWII.
  • 23. The Selective Training and Service Act: all males 21-36 to register for military service. - Soldiers called themselves “GIs” Government Issued  Office of War Mobilization: factories changed production to war goods instead of consumer goods.  Office of Price Administration: Controlled inflation, limited prices and rents, Controlled rationing  Women entered the workforce as more men went to fight in the war. (Rosie the Riveter)  Japanese Internment: Fears of more Japanese attacks on America leads to a round up of Japanese citizens. They are placed in camps. 
  • 24. Rationing – Conserving food and goods to help war efforts. War bonds – helped raise money for the government and the war. Rosie the Riveter – media propaganda creation devised to encourage women to fill in for men while they were fighting World War II. WACS – a division of the military in which women served.
  • 25. General George Patton – US general involved with the invasion of Italy. Douglas MacArthur – Commanding general of the US military in the Pacific. Chester Nimitz – US admiral who used the method of island hopping (US strategy of attacking some islands and leaving others as they made their way across the Pacific Ocean to Japan) 
  • 26. Battle of Britain (Aug. 1940) – German attack on Britain – mostly by air Stalingrad (Sept. 1942) – Germans surrendered to the Allies in Russia and it became a major turning point of the war in the East. D-Day (Operation Overlord) (June 1944) - The Allied troops began the liberation of Western Europe. Battle of the Bulge (Dec. 1944)– A battle in between Germany and the Allies in which after much back and forth, with the help of the United States, the Allies defeat the Germans. Strategy: Take over and invade from the “Soft Underbelly of North Africa).
  • 27. Battle of Midway (June 1942) – After this Ally victory over Japan, the Japanese were unable to launch any more offensive actions in the Pacific. Iwo Jima (Nov. 1944) – Americans attacked Japan by air and by land. Okinawa (April 1945) – 100,000 Japanese v. 180,000 Allies. After months of fighting 7,200 Japanese surrendered. Over 50,000 Americans died. Strategy: Island Hopping (powering up island by island to gain strength).
  • 28. Manhattan Project – Led by J. Robert Oppenheimer, this was the project which developed the atomic bomb which was dropped twice on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. = War ends in Pacific. Hitler commits suicide. = War ends in Europe.
  • 29. V-E Day, V-J Day – Victory in Europe and Victory in Japan Days. Casablanca, Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam – Conferences between the big world powers discussing the end of the war and how to secure lasting peace
  • 30. G.I. Bill – provided money for college and loans to buy homes for people in the military. Levittown – suburban neighborhoods. Homes were built quickly and for less money. • Baby boomers – the population greatly increased after WWII due to an increased economy and men returning home from war. The United States saw increased conformity during this time.
  • 31. Civil liberties – freedoms that protect individuals from the government to a certain extent (examples: freedom of speech, religion, etc.) Japanese Internment – During WWII in the US, Japanese were forced to live in prison-like camps because of US fear of spies and cooperation with the Japanese government. Korematsu v. United States (1944) – Court case which said that internment camps were legal and furthermore they were needed for the security of the US.
  • 32. Theory – If one country falls to communism they all will.  Domino – The United States’ policy to stop the spread of communism.  Containment
  • 33. Iron Curtain – In 1946 Churchill made a speech in which he said the Soviet Union had created an iron curtain of communist domination and oppression. Truman Doctrine (1947) – stated that the policy of the USA must be to contain communism through supporting people who are resisting communist oppression.  Marshall Plan (1947) – tried to strengthen European nations by giving them money to create strong democracies and economies so the nations would not support communism (Soviet Union).
  • 34. • Berlin Airlift (1948-1952)– Drops of goods by the US into Soviet-controlled EastBerlin after WWII
  • 35. Korean War (1950-1953)– Post WWII Korea was split along the 38th parallel. The north was communist and the south anticommunist. The north invaded the south and the U.S. immediately called for UN police action. Russia supported the north, allies the south. A three year war ensued, and in the end the line remained drawn.
  • 36. Hydrogen Bomb (1953) – After receiving word that the USSR had created an atomic bomb, the US felt the need to build a bigger/better/more powerful bomb. Eisenhower Doctrine (1957) – Eisenhower continued Truman’s policy of containment, adding the Middle East in the protection from the spread of communism.
  • 37. U-2 Incident – (1960) A US spy plane was shot down over Russia, showing the strength and abilities of the USSR. Bay of Pigs (1961) – The US made a failed attempt to overthrow the Cuban government by supporting Cuban rebels who were against communist leader, Fidel Castro. Berlin Wall (1989) – After WWII the Soviets built a wall to split East and West Germany. It stopped people from fleeing from the east to the west. The wall symbolized the division of the Cold War.
  • 38. United Nations – The United States, Great Britain, and the USSR agreed to create the UN so that nations could settle their differences peacefully. They met at Casablanca, Tehran, Potsdam, and Yalta among other places. - The UN also created a security council where the major powers, who would be permanent members, could veto any measures brought before them. O.A.S. – Organization of American States (North and South America) – promoted cooperation between democratic nations. N.A.T.O. – North Atlantic Treaty Organization – group of US and European allies who agreed to a policy of collective security (attack on one = attack on all). Warsaw Pact – The Soviet Union’s response to NATO – a military alliance between the USSR and its satellite nations.