Causes of WWII:
1.Treaty of Versailles (WWI) too harsh.
2.Totalitarian Leaders: Stalin, Mussolini, Hitler
4.The Munich Pact: (Policy of appeasement)
5.Spanish Civil War: Fascism Spreads.
- Treaty of Versailles very harsh toward
- No army to protect itself, had to pay hefty
fines, and caused a depression.
- Totalitarianism: A type of government in which
all social, political, economic, intellectual, and
cultural activities are controlled by the rulers of a
Fascism: authoritarian nationalist political
ideologies or mass movements that are concerned
with notions of cultural decline
- Stalin (Russia), Mussolini (Italy), Hitler
- Made war illegal. This failed because there was
no way to enforce the law.
- Munich Pact: It permitted immediate
occupation by Germany of the Sudetenland, a
region of Czechoslovakia
- Appeasement: the policy of granting
concessions to potential enemies in order
- Francisco Franco comes to power.
Releases gasses and uses weapons on
- Preview of war to come.
Non-Aggression Pact: Between Germany and the Soviet Union.
1. Agreed not to fight each other
2. Agreed to split Poland
September 1st, 1939: Germany invades Poland
September 3rd, 1939: France and Great Britain declare war on Germany
The Battle of Dunkirk:
- English and French soldiers surrounded on the beach
- Hitler did not act fast enough- Mistake??
Battle of Britain:
- RAF vs. Luftwaffa
- Every night for 2 months Britain was bombed
- Eventually called off by Hitler
1. Hitler wanted to create racial purity in Germany
3. Nuremberg Laws
5. Movement into the ghettos
6. Concentration Camps
8. The Final Solution
10. Nuremberg Trials
11. Over 6 million Jews were killed during the Holocaust
Hatred/Feelings of negativity toward
Hitler blamed the Jews for all of Germany’s
Jews placed under restrictions.
- Had curfews.
Had to wear “Stars of David” to identify
Transported to ghettos or Jewish-only
- “Night of Broken Glass” Jews
attacked, houses of worship
robbed, businesses destroyed.
Moved Jews into Jewish only
neighborhoods with filthy conditions and
Taken to concentration camps to work and
to become part of “Final Solution.”
Killing off/destroying one ethnic group.
Final Solution: Send all Jews in Europe to
Most notorious concentration camp.
More than a million Jews
gassed, shot, worked to death, and
Trials of the Nazi commanders for the
crimes on humanity of the Holocaust. 12
were sentenced to be hanged, showing
that leaders must be held responsible for
o Joseph Stalin – Russia (Communist)
o Winston Churchill – Great Britain (Democracy)
o Franklin D. Roosevelt – United States (Democracy)
o Emperor Hirohito – Japan (Militarism)
o Benito Mussolini – Italy (Fascist)
o Adolf Hitler – Germany (Fascist)
- Neutrality – did not want to be involved in another world war.
1. Cannot provide weapons to other nations
2. Banned loans to other nations
3. Permitted trade to other countries: only non military goods
Country must pay cash and pay for transporting he goods = “cash
and carry policy”
- The Lend-Lease Act: (1941) Authorized the President (FDR) to aid
nations whose defense was vital to the protection of American security.
- December 7th, 1941: Invasion of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese
Neutrality Acts (1935) - Passed by the United
States prior to their entry into WWII, these
acts forbade giving any type of aid to countries
Speech (1937) – a speech by FDR
which called for an international “quarantine of
aggressor nations” through economic pressure.
Four Freedoms (1941) – a speech by FDR that
stated that people all over the world should have
(1) freedom of speech (2) freedom of religion (3)
freedom from want (4) freedom from fear.
Lend-Lease Act (March 1941)– This Act
basically repealed the Neutrality Acts, allowing
the united states to aid any country that they saw
as essential to US security.
In December of 1941, Japan attacked a US
military base in Pearl Harbor, HI. This became
the immediate cause of the US’s entry into
The Selective Training and Service Act: all males 21-36 to register for
- Soldiers called themselves “GIs” Government Issued
Office of War Mobilization: factories changed production to war goods
instead of consumer goods.
Office of Price Administration: Controlled inflation, limited prices and
rents, Controlled rationing
Women entered the workforce as more men went to fight in the war. (Rosie
Japanese Internment: Fears of more Japanese attacks on America leads to
a round up of Japanese citizens. They are placed in camps.
Rationing – Conserving food and goods to help
War bonds – helped raise money for the
government and the war.
Rosie the Riveter – media propaganda creation
devised to encourage women to fill in for men while
they were fighting World War II.
WACS – a division of the military in which women
General George Patton – US general involved
with the invasion of Italy.
Douglas MacArthur – Commanding general of
the US military in the Pacific.
Chester Nimitz – US admiral who used the
method of island hopping (US strategy of
attacking some islands and leaving others as they
made their way across the Pacific Ocean to
Battle of Britain (Aug. 1940) – German attack on Britain – mostly
Stalingrad (Sept. 1942) – Germans surrendered to the Allies in
Russia and it became a major turning point of the war in the East.
D-Day (Operation Overlord) (June 1944) - The Allied troops began
the liberation of Western Europe.
Battle of the Bulge (Dec. 1944)– A battle in between Germany and
the Allies in which after much back and forth, with the help of the
United States, the Allies defeat the Germans.
Strategy: Take over and invade from the “Soft Underbelly of North
Battle of Midway (June 1942) – After this Ally victory
over Japan, the Japanese were unable to launch any
more offensive actions in the Pacific.
Iwo Jima (Nov. 1944) – Americans attacked Japan by
air and by land.
Okinawa (April 1945) – 100,000 Japanese v. 180,000
Allies. After months of fighting 7,200 Japanese
surrendered. Over 50,000 Americans died.
Strategy: Island Hopping (powering up island by island to gain
Manhattan Project – Led by J. Robert
Oppenheimer, this was the project which
developed the atomic bomb which was
dropped twice on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki. = War ends in Pacific.
Hitler commits suicide. = War ends in
V-E Day, V-J Day – Victory in Europe and
Victory in Japan Days.
Casablanca, Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam
– Conferences between the big world
powers discussing the end of the war
and how to secure lasting peace
G.I. Bill – provided money for college and
loans to buy homes for people in the military.
Levittown – suburban neighborhoods.
Homes were built quickly and for less money.
Baby boomers – the population greatly
increased after WWII due to an increased
economy and men returning home from war.
The United States saw increased conformity
during this time.
Civil liberties – freedoms that protect individuals from
the government to a certain extent (examples:
freedom of speech, religion, etc.)
Japanese Internment – During WWII in the US,
Japanese were forced to live in prison-like camps
because of US fear of spies and cooperation with the
Korematsu v. United States (1944) – Court case
which said that internment camps were legal and
furthermore they were needed for the security of the
Theory – If one country falls to
communism they all will.
– The United States’ policy
to stop the spread of communism.
Iron Curtain – In 1946 Churchill made a speech in
which he said the Soviet Union had created an iron
curtain of communist domination and oppression.
Truman Doctrine (1947) – stated that the policy of the
USA must be to contain communism through
supporting people who are resisting communist
Marshall Plan (1947) – tried to strengthen European
nations by giving them money to create strong
democracies and economies so the nations would not
support communism (Soviet Union).
Berlin Airlift (1948-1952)– Drops of goods
by the US into Soviet-controlled EastBerlin after WWII
Korean War (1950-1953)– Post WWII
Korea was split along the 38th parallel. The
north was communist and the south anticommunist. The north invaded the south
and the U.S. immediately called for UN
police action. Russia supported the
north, allies the south. A three year war
ensued, and in the end the line remained
Hydrogen Bomb (1953) – After receiving
word that the USSR had created an
atomic bomb, the US felt the need to build
a bigger/better/more powerful bomb.
Eisenhower Doctrine (1957) –
Eisenhower continued Truman’s policy of
containment, adding the Middle East in the
protection from the spread of communism.
U-2 Incident – (1960) A US spy plane was shot down
over Russia, showing the strength and abilities of the
Bay of Pigs (1961) – The US made a failed attempt to
overthrow the Cuban government by supporting
Cuban rebels who were against communist
leader, Fidel Castro.
Berlin Wall (1989) – After WWII the Soviets built a
wall to split East and West Germany. It stopped people
from fleeing from the east to the west. The wall
symbolized the division of the Cold War.
United Nations – The United States, Great Britain, and the USSR agreed
to create the UN so that nations could settle their differences peacefully.
They met at Casablanca, Tehran, Potsdam, and Yalta among other
The UN also created a security council where the major powers, who would be
permanent members, could veto any measures brought before them.
O.A.S. – Organization of American States (North and South America) –
promoted cooperation between democratic nations.
N.A.T.O. – North Atlantic Treaty Organization – group of US and European
allies who agreed to a policy of collective security (attack on one = attack
Warsaw Pact – The Soviet Union’s response to NATO – a military alliance
between the USSR and its satellite nations.