Launching a New Nation
Chapter 8
Washington takes Office






Revolution left many
devastated but
colonies gained
independence.
One general in
particul...
Washington takes Office


Congress and the
President had to put
together a working
government.
 The Congress passed

law...
Washington takes Office







The President appointed
an attorney general to
advise him on legal
issues
Alexander Ha...
Washington takes Office


Judiciary Act of
1789: set up
Supreme Court of 6
justices.
 3 circuit Courts and



13 distr...
Washington takes Office


After the Revolution
the federal
government owed
$52 million
 Who was going to
pay the debt?
Washington takes Office


Alexander Hamilton, the
Secretary of Treasury
came up with a plan to
solve the problem.
 US go...
Washington takes Office


Hamilton wanted to
prove to other countries
that the US would pay
back their debts
 Southern s...
Washington takes Office


National Bank: would
hold funds and issue
paper money.







Thomas Jefferson:
fought again...
Washington takes Office


In 1791, Congress
started a tax on
whiskey.
 This was supposed

to raise money for
the governm...
Washington takes Office


In 1794, officials in
western PA tried to
collect taxes






The Farmers rebelled
and burne...
Activity: Form A Cabinet
 Congratulations!

 Directions:

You are now
president and must - Create a list of at
form a ca...
The Birth of Political Parties


The writers of the
Constitution did not
believe that political
parties were going to
dev...
The Birth of Political Parties







Democratic - Republicans:
federal government was
growing too strong under
Washin...
The Birth of Political Parties






Federalists: favored
a national bank and
tariff, close ties with
England
Republica...
The Birth of Political Parties





Republicans: Thomas
Jefferson
Federalists: John
Adams
1796: President and
Vice pre...
Troubles at home and Abroad





British soldiers: still in the
North West Territory after
war.
Native Americans: tried...
Troubles at home and Abroad


Washington: sent
troops to end the
native attacks on
settlers.
 Natives: defeated the
mili...
Troubles at home and Abroad


1789: French
Revolution begins.
 Most Americans:



supported the French at
first because...
Troubles at home and Abroad


1793: France and
England were at war,
Washington wanted to
remain neutral.






Americ...
Troubles at home and Abroad


John Jay: went to
London to form a treaty
with Britain.








Treaty said: US would
p...
Troubles at home and abroad
 Pinckney’s Treaty:
 1795: United States and Spain
have control over the Mississippi
River.
...
Troubles at home and Abroad


1796: Washington
decided to retire, he
left pieces of advice:
 He warned against



polit...
Troubles at home and Abroad


He said that the nation
should remain neutral
and not get involved with
European affairs –
...
The Presidency of John Adams


When Adams
became president,
the French were
angered by US
neutrality
 Jay’s Treaty with
...
The Presidency of John Adams


In 1797, Adams sent
three men to FranceThey were met with
French agents
demanding that the...
The Presidency of John Adams


Because of the XYZ
Affair, Federalists
demanded that
Adams ask
Congress to declare
war on ...
The Presidency of John Adams




Between 1798 and
1800, the US fought an
undeclared naval war
with France
To avoid real ...
The Presidency of John Adams


The Mistrust in France
led to a mistrust of
Immigrants
 The Alien Act was



passed sayi...
The Presidency of John Adams


The Republicans
denounced the Alien
and Sedition Acts.
 The Problem was
that the Supreme
...
The Presidency of John Adams


James Madison and
Thomas Jefferson led
the campaign toward
the power of the
Supreme Court
...
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Launching the New Nation

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Goal 1

  1. 1. Launching a New Nation Chapter 8
  2. 2. Washington takes Office    Revolution left many devastated but colonies gained independence. One general in particular proved to be important: GEORGE WASHINGTON. He was inaugurated on April 30, 1789  He was anxious and knew that his actions would set a precedent.
  3. 3. Washington takes Office  Congress and the President had to put together a working government.  The Congress passed laws to set up three departments for the Executive Branch (The President)   The Department of the Treasury, Department of State and Department of war Each was headed by a person chosen by the President
  4. 4. Washington takes Office      The President appointed an attorney general to advise him on legal issues Alexander Hamilton: Secretary of Treasury. Thomas Jefferson: Secretary of State. Henry Knox: Secretary of War. Edmund Randolph: Attorney General  Today the Presidents advisors are known as the Cabinet.
  5. 5. Washington takes Office  Judiciary Act of 1789: set up Supreme Court of 6 justices.  3 circuit Courts and   13 district courts Federal courts to hear appeals from the state court John Jay: First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
  6. 6. Washington takes Office  After the Revolution the federal government owed $52 million  Who was going to pay the debt?
  7. 7. Washington takes Office  Alexander Hamilton, the Secretary of Treasury came up with a plan to solve the problem.  US government: Agreed to pay all federal and state debts.  Open a national bank for depositing government goods.  Start a high tax on imported goods.
  8. 8. Washington takes Office  Hamilton wanted to prove to other countries that the US would pay back their debts  Southern states: “We  don’t need to pay the federal debt, we paid our state debt.” If Southerners helped pay debts:  Capital would be in the South.  Is the Capital in the South?? What does this mean? 
  9. 9. Washington takes Office  National Bank: would hold funds and issue paper money.    Thomas Jefferson: fought against the bank saying it was Unconstitutional. The bank was created 1791 Hamilton imposed a tariff on goods.  It would raise money for the government
  10. 10. Washington takes Office  In 1791, Congress started a tax on whiskey.  This was supposed to raise money for the government. Result:  Farmers refused to pay!  Beat up federal marshals.  Government sends in troops.
  11. 11. Washington takes Office  In 1794, officials in western PA tried to collect taxes    The Farmers rebelled and burned down the home of the tax collector This gained popularity and a mob marched throughout Pittsburgh and was known as the Whiskey Rebellion Washington sent the militia to break it up
  12. 12. Activity: Form A Cabinet  Congratulations!  Directions: You are now president and must - Create a list of at form a cabinet. least 4 departments you  Get into your would create. groups. - Describe their jobs. - Include: title, mission,
  13. 13. The Birth of Political Parties  The writers of the Constitution did not believe that political parties were going to develop  1790: Jefferson and James Madison formed on political party and Alexander Hamilton formed the other
  14. 14. The Birth of Political Parties     Democratic - Republicans: federal government was growing too strong under Washington. Power should be at the state level Federalists: Strong central government to make the country work. The country was torn. Hamilton claimed that Washington was a federalist  Newspapers claimed that Federalists wanted to betray the constitution and bring back the king
  15. 15. The Birth of Political Parties    Federalists: favored a national bank and tariff, close ties with England Republicans: did not want a bank or tariff and wanted ties with France. 1796: George Washington would not run for a third term, this set a precedent
  16. 16. The Birth of Political Parties     Republicans: Thomas Jefferson Federalists: John Adams 1796: President and Vice president did not run together. Person who got the most votes became president and the person who got the second most was vice president    Adams became president and Jefferson became vice president What issues would this present?
  17. 17. Troubles at home and Abroad    British soldiers: still in the North West Territory after war. Native Americans: tried to keep their lands too. American leaders: believed that the future depended on settling western lands.  The officials tried to force  the natives to sell their land They succeeded in buying most of Kentucky and part of Tennessee
  18. 18. Troubles at home and Abroad  Washington: sent troops to end the native attacks on settlers.  Natives: defeated the military twice before Washington sent General Anthony Wayne.  Wayne: won against the Natives at the Battle of Fallen TimbersNamed this because of all the fallen trees
  19. 19. Troubles at home and Abroad  1789: French Revolution begins.  Most Americans:  supported the French at first because it was similar to what they went through. But then the French Revolution got much more violent with the “reign of terror”  17,000 people, including the king and queen were killed.
  20. 20. Troubles at home and Abroad  1793: France and England were at war, Washington wanted to remain neutral.     America: trade with both sides. France and England began to stop American ships and seize their cargo. Britain: began impressment of sailors. Hamilton: urged the president to stay friendly with Britain because the US depended on them for imports
  21. 21. Troubles at home and Abroad  John Jay: went to London to form a treaty with Britain.     Treaty said: US would pay its debts to British merchants and the British would pay for the ships it has seized British would also withdraw from the Northwest Territory. British refused to recognize the US right to trade with France and would not stop impressment Jay’s Treaty was approved by the senate
  22. 22. Troubles at home and abroad  Pinckney’s Treaty:  1795: United States and Spain have control over the Mississippi River.  Thomas Pinckney: travels to Spain and creates a treaty in which America gains control of the Mississippi.  Why is this important for the new nation?
  23. 23. Troubles at home and Abroad  1796: Washington decided to retire, he left pieces of advice:  He warned against  political parties and thought they would divide the nations. He warned to stay away from alliances with other nations.
  24. 24. Troubles at home and Abroad  He said that the nation should remain neutral and not get involved with European affairs – Proclamation of Neutrality.  Things Washington accomplished  The Unites States now had a Federal Government  The economy was improving  Washington had avoided war  The British had been forced to leave the Northwest
  25. 25. The Presidency of John Adams  When Adams became president, the French were angered by US neutrality  Jay’s Treaty with England only increased tensions
  26. 26. The Presidency of John Adams  In 1797, Adams sent three men to FranceThey were met with French agents demanding that the US pay a bribe of $250,000  They also wanted   several million dollars The Americans refused The Bribe became public and the French agents names were kept secret  This was called the XYZ Affair
  27. 27. The Presidency of John Adams  Because of the XYZ Affair, Federalists demanded that Adams ask Congress to declare war on France  Adams asked  Congress to increase the size of the Army and rebuild the Navy He also created a separate department of the Navy
  28. 28. The Presidency of John Adams   Between 1798 and 1800, the US fought an undeclared naval war with France To avoid real war, Adams sent a new mission to France   Napoleon Bonaparte, Frances leader, was fighting a war in Europe and agreed to stop seizing American ships. Although Adams had avoided war, his own Federalist Party disapproved with him
  29. 29. The Presidency of John Adams  The Mistrust in France led to a mistrust of Immigrants  The Alien Act was  passed saying that a person had to live in the US for 14 years before becoming a citizen, instead of 5 years The Sedition Act was passed putting a limit on free speech It was a crime to speak out against the President, Congress or Government
  30. 30. The Presidency of John Adams  The Republicans denounced the Alien and Sedition Acts.  The Problem was that the Supreme Court was not fully established and did not know how to make a law unconstitutional.
  31. 31. The Presidency of John Adams  James Madison and Thomas Jefferson led the campaign toward the power of the Supreme Court  They said that states    had the right to declare laws unconstitutional The Sedition Act expired in 1801 After this, the Supreme Court could nullify the laws passed by Congress The differences between states rights and federal rights became a problem after this.
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