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Macro mols   nucleic acids
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Macro mols nucleic acids


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  • 1. Nucleic AcidNucleotideDNA
  • 2. Nucleic acidMost well known function: Informational macromolecule Store hereditary information The only molecules in existence that can produce identical copies of themselves 2 types: DNA & RNA
  • 3. Other Function Chemical energy (e.g. ATP) Combine with other groups to form enzymes (e.g. Coenzyme A comes from ADP) Signal molecule (e.g. cAMP) Evidence for evolution: more closely related species contain similar DNA sequences
  • 4. Monomer: Nucleotide The single unit of nucleic acids is a nucleotide A nucleotide consists of 3 components:  Sugar (2 types)  Base (5 types)  Phosphate (1-3)
  • 5. Pentose Sugar 5 carbons:  Recall from linear carbohydrates  note the “prime” numbering system 2 types:  Ribose (for RNA)  Deoxyribose (for DNA): missing an oxygen at the 2’ position
  • 6. Nitrogenous base Rings of C & N Purine:  2 fused rings  A, G Pyrimidine  single 6 sided rings  C, T (DNA), U (RNA)
  • 7. Nitrogenous base comparison Purine (large) Pyrimidine (small)2 H-bonds Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Uracil (U)3 H-bonds Guanine (G) Cytosine (C)
  • 8. Building thenucleic acid
  • 9. Nucleoside Sugar + base connected by an N-glycosidic bond H2O Condensation reaction between OH on 1’ carbon of the sugar and H on base
  • 10. Nucleoside NomenclatureBase Nucleoside Nucleoside (ribose sugar) (deoxyribose sugar)AdenineGuanineCytosineThymineUracil
  • 11. Nucleoside NomenclatureBase Nucleoside Nucleoside (ribose sugar) (deoxyribose sugar)Adenine AdenosineGuanine GuanosineCytosine CytidineThymine ThymidineUracil Uridine
  • 12. Nucleoside NomenclatureBase Nucleoside Nucleoside (ribose sugar) (deoxyribose sugar)Adenine Adenosine DeoxyadenosineGuanine Guanosine DeoxyguanosineCytosine Cytidine DeoxycytidineThymine Thymidine DeoxythymidineUracil Uridine deoxyuridine
  • 13. Nucleoside Nomenclature Practice: Name these nucleosides
  • 14. Building thenucleic acid
  • 15. Phosphate Anywhere from 1-3 phosphate molecules Attached to sugar at 5’ carbon Naming system uses prefix: mono, di, tri
  • 16. Nucleotide Nomenclature Nucleoside name + prefix-phosphate  Example: adenosine triphosphate 3 letter short forms  Example: ATP
  • 17. Nucleotide Nomenclature Practice: Write the full and 3 letter short form name for a nucleotide that has a pyrimidine base that forms 3 H-bonds, a ribose sugar and 2 phosphate groups Practice: Write the full and 4 letter short form name for a nucleotide that has a purine base that forms 3 H-bonds, a deoxyribose sugar and 1 phosphate group
  • 18. Building thenucleic acid
  • 19. Single Strand  Identify the 2 major groups involved in the reaction to form a nucleic acid chain  What is the name of the reaction?  Phosphodiester bond formed
  • 20. Phosphodiester bond Condensation reaction between  pentose sugar 3’ OH group of one nucleotide  5’ phosphate group of another nucleotide
  • 21. Single Strand
  • 22. 5’  3’ Growth of Single Strand
  • 23. DNA forms double helix 2 strands held together by interactions between base pairs Anti-parallel nature of strands
  • 24. Base pairing Bases that pair have same number of hydrogen bonds  A-T makes 2 H-bonds  G-C makes 3 H-bonds Pairs are different sizes:  Always a purine + pyrimidine
  • 25. DNA ladder analogy
  • 26. DNA ladder analogy  Sides of ladder: sugar phosphate backbone (phosphodiester bonds)  Rungs: hydrogen bonding between base pairs  Question: What overall charge does DNA have? Explain.
  • 27. DNA ladder analogy
  • 28. Compare DNA & RNA DNA RNA Sugar Base strand
  • 29. Compare DNA & RNA DNA RNA Sugar Deoxyribose ribose Base A, T, C, G A, U, C, G strand Double helix Usually single