Lipid Function1. Long-term energy storage (fat)2. Form cell membrane (phospholipids)3. Messaging (hormones)4. Insulation5. Cushioning of Internal Organs
Lipid FunctionWhy are lipids well suited for long term energy storage? Contain many high energy bonds between carbon and hydrogen Contain twice as much energy per gram than carbohydrates (very concentrated) Thus a much more compact form of storage than carbohydrate Animals store fats in adipose cells
1. Fat Structure Fatty acid also known as Glycerol Fatty acid triglyceride or Fatty acid triacylglycerol Consists of: 1 glycerol backbone 3 fatty acid chains
Glycerol Structure Fatty acid Basic structure: Glycerol Fatty acid 3 carbon molecule Fatty acid each carbon has a hydroxyl group attached the alcohols are sites for condensation reactions
Fatty acid structure Basic structure: Unbranched chain of carbons A carboxyl group at one end Fatty acid chains can differ from each other in two ways: Length of carbon chain: 4-24 Saturation (number of double bonds) - Saturated - Monounsaturated - polyunsaturated
Essential Fatty AcidsThe most common fatty acid in living organisms is palmitic acid.Humans can synthesize and use palmitic acid:CH3(CH2)14CO2Hor
Essential Fatty AcidsEssential fatty acids are those that humans can notsynthesis and must ingest.Humans can not create double bonds in fatty acidsbeyond C10.1) alpha-Linolenic Acid (an omega-3 fatty acid)
Properties of Fatty acids Type Saturated Unsaturated Structure Single bonds Double bonds, kinkState at r.t. Solid liquid Origin Animals PlantsExamples Butter, lard Olive oil, essential FA (omega-3/6 fish oil)
Property of Saturated Fats Saturated fats are solid! Butter sculpture at the CNE 2012 Can you guess who this is?
Forming a triacylglycerol Condensation reaction between: Hydroxyl on glycerol Carboxyl on fatty acid Results in an ester bond
Self-assembly of phospholipid Condition: in water (aqueous) Self-assembly = spontaneous aggregate Due to hydrophobic interactions Micelle: single layer of phospholipid with polar head facing out, nonpolar tails facing inward http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255chem/mcb2.20.micelle.jpg
Self-assembly of phospholipid Phospholipid bilayer have a double layer of phospholipids where the nonpolar tails aggregate forming a hydrophobic core This is the basic structure of the plasma membrane http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255chem/mcb2.20.micelle.jpg
Plasma Membrane Membranes are made of a bilayer of phospholipids.
4. Wax StructureLong chain hydrocarbons Primarily wax esters: a long chain hydrocarbon with an ester group that is not a triglyceride Could also involve alcohol, aldehyde & ketone groups http://www.lipidlibrary.co.uk/Lipids/waxes/index.htm
Properties of Wax Solid at room temperature Becomes liquid when melted has plastic properties: deforms under pressure without application of heat thermoplastic is a polymer that turns to a liquid when heated and freezes to a very glassy state when cooled sufficiently
Carotenoid: Plant Pigment Found in plants, algae, photosynthetic bacteria Pigment needed for photosynthesis in addition to chlorophyll e.g. beta-carotene in carrot http://i03.i.aliimg.com/img/pb/593/581/248/1273569425304_hz-myalibaba-web15.hst.dsl.en.alidc.net_2444.jpg
Carotenoid: use in animals Detecting light: e.g. retinal absorbs light in retina Serves as antioxidant: double bonds absorb excess energy from other molecules, protecting cells and tissues from damaging effects of free radicals Source for vitamin A http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Images/Nutrients/vitAbetac.gif
What is common to all lipids? The 5 forms of lipids studied are not built upon any common monomer. What unified these lipids so that they are all classified under the ‘lipid’ category? In other words, what makes a lipid, a lipid?
HW Question Why is glycerol not classified as a triose (3C monosaccharide)? Explain how saturation in a fatty acid chain affects fluidity. Explain how the length of the fatty acid chain affects fluidity.