Bonding lesson


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Bonding lesson

  1. 1. Types of BondingIntramolecularIntermolecular
  2. 2. Definitions Bond: a type of interaction between atoms that result in atoms staying close together Molecule: two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond Intramolecular: forces of attraction within a molecule (e.g. intramurals) Intermolecular: forces of attraction between molecules in a compound (e.g. international)
  3. 3. Types of Interactions Summary Intermolecul Intramolecul ar ar
  4. 4. Intramolecular Bonds Electronegativity: attraction of an atom for electrons Example of a very electronegative atom: oxygen When two atoms with different electronegativity get together…
  5. 5. Intramolecular Bonds
  6. 6. Intramolecular: Ionic If two atoms with very large differences in electronegativity get together, one of atom could take away an electron from the other Acceptor “stealer” of electron becomes negativity charged (anion = negative ion) Donor of electron becomes positively charged (cation = positive ion)
  7. 7. Intramolecular: Ionic Ionic bond forms from an attraction between an anion and cation Ionic compounds are formed by ionic bonds Salts are ionic compounds (e.g. Na+ + Cl-  NaCl) Salt crystals have a 3D lattice because of +/- attractions
  8. 8. Types of Interactions Summary Intermolecul Intramolecul ar ar Covalent Ionic
  9. 9. Intramolecular: Covalent Covalent bond forms when atoms share electrons Nonpolar covalent bond  atoms have the same electronegativity  electrons are equally shared  e.g. H2 Polar covalent bond  atoms have slight differences in electronegativity  electrons are unequally shared  e.g. HCl
  10. 10. Polar Covalent Bond
  11. 11. Polarity of a MoleculePolarity dependent on the polarity of the bond ANDthe molecular SHAPE BondShape Nonpolar bond Polar bond nonpolar nonpolarSymmetrical molecule molecule (e.g. H2) (e.g. CO2) nonpolar polar moleculeAssymetrical molecule (e.g. HCl, H2O)
  12. 12. Polar Covalent Bond
  13. 13. Polarity
  14. 14. Ionic Versus Molecular
  15. 15. Types of Interactions Summary Intermolecul Intramolecul ar ar Covalent Ionic Nonpolar Polar Covalent Covalent
  16. 16. Intermolecular Forces
  17. 17. Types of Interactions Summary Intermolecul Intramolecul ar ar London Dipole- Hydrogen Covalent Ionic(dispersion) dipole bonding & forces Ion-dipole Nonpolar Polar Covalent Covalent
  18. 18. London Dispersion Exists between all molecules Weak force, due to instantaneous diploes
  19. 19. Dipole-Dipole  Exists between polar molecules  Due to permanent dipoles
  20. 20. Hydrogen Bonding Strong force (just a very strong dipole-dipole) Between a polar molecule with an H-atom and a polar molecule with an electronegative atom (usually O, N or F)
  21. 21. Ion-Dipole Ion-Dipole Dipole is attracted to an oppositely charged ion When ionic compounds dissolve in water, water molecules surround the ion and remove it from the crystal lattice structure (hydration shell)
  22. 22. Hydrophobic Interactions Nonpolar molecules are excluded from mixing with polar molecules Nonpolar molecules tend to associate with each other Can occur spontaneously (e.g. oil molecules spontaneously associate excluding water)