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11u bio div 08
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11u bio div 08


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  • 1. Kingdom Animalia
  • 2. In order to be in the Kingdom Animalia, anorganism must be considered: Multicellular Heterotrophic Typically reproduce sexually Lack cell wall Motile during some life stage Rapid response to external stimuli Have 2 types of tissues only found in animals: nervous tissue and muscle tissue
  • 3. Over time, animalsincreased in complexity Level of cellular organization and specialization Type of symmetry of body plan Degree of cephalization Presence and type of body cavity Presence of segmentation Structure of digestive system
  • 4. Key Term: Cephalization A concentration of nervous tissue and feeding mechanisms in the head region that serves to integrate the activities of the nervous system
  • 5. Evolutionary Origin of Animals Animals are thought to have arisen from the sea, from colonial protists
  • 6. It is believed that someof these protistscolonies began to foldinward, creating agastrula-likeprotosome.In this stage, cellspecializationoccurred, paving theway for the evolution oftrue multi-cellularorganisms
  • 7. Cell Specialization andTissue Formation First cell divisions are known as cleavages Several cleavages produces a small hollow ball of cells
  • 8.  As they continue to divide, the cells get pushed towarsd the interior, creating a BLASTULA Differentiation (ie. Cells become specialized) occurs in late stages of blastula
  • 9. 3 Types of Tissue Endoderm:  Gives rise to: liver pancreas, lungs, lining of digestive tract  Found in the inner layer
  • 10. 3 Types of Tissue Mesoderm:  Gives rise to: notochord, lining of coelem, muscles, skeleton, circulatory system  Found in the middle layer
  • 11. 3 Types of Tissue Ectoderm:  Gives rise to: covering of the body, central nervous tissue  Found in the outer layer
  • 12.  If a body cavity is present between the digestive tract and the outer layer wall it is referred to as a coelom
  • 13.  This body cavity is lined with the mesoderm, which produces a circulatory system in the body (nutrients and oxygen therefore don’t diffuse into all body cells)
  • 14. Advantages to having acoelem Acts as a cushion for internal organs Provides more room for internal organs to expand Allows animal to become larger Allows digestive tract to develop specialized regions and blood vessels
  • 15. 4 types of body plans: Radial Symmetry Spherical Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry Asymmetry
  • 16. Asymmetry Lack symmetry No top or bottom No sides are mirror images Ex. The hydra
  • 17. Spherical Arranged around a central point Not top, bottom, left or right, head or rear Ex. Sea Urchins
  • 18. Radial Arranged around a central axis like spokes on a wheel Has a top and a bottom Ex. Starfish
  • 19. Bilateral Arranged around a midline Left and right sides Sides are mirror images Ex. Butterfly
  • 20. Key Term: Cephalization The concentration of sensory tissues at anterior end Travelling animal can sense food, danger, and other stimuli A head end is an adaptation for movement (ie. Burrowing) More active animals are generally bilateral and have cephilization
  • 21. Simple Animals Porifera Cnidaria
  • 22. Worm-like Animals Flatworms Roundworms Segmented Worms
  • 23. Invertebrates Mollusca Echinodermata
  • 24. Joint-legged animals-Arthropods Crustacea Arachnida Insecta Diplopoda and Chilopoda
  • 25. Internal Skeletons (chordates) Ancestral chordates  Urachordata (tunicates)
  • 26. Internal Skeletons (chordates) Vertebrates  Cephalochordata (lancelets)
  • 27. Internal Skeletons (chordates) Vertebrates  Chodrichthyes (sharks) Tiger Shark Basking Shark (endangered)
  • 28. Internal Skeletons (chordates) Vertebrates  Ostekcthyes  (bony fish)
  • 29. Internal Skeletons (chordates) Vertebrates  Amphibia (frogs and salamanders) Poisonous Dart Frog
  • 30. Internal Skeletons (chordates) Vertebrates  Reptilia
  • 31. Internal Skeletons (chordates) Vertebrates  Aves (birds) Carara Bird
  • 32. Internal Skeletons (chordates) Vertebrates  Mammalia