11u bio ani 07

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11u bio ani 07

  1. 1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Lung volumes </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that affect lung volumes: </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking history </li></ul><ul><li>Fitness/athleticism </li></ul><ul><li>Altitude* </li></ul><ul><li>* Air at higher altitudes has less oxygen, so lung volume increases to allow more air into the lungs </li></ul>Larger volumes Smaller volumes males females taller people shorter people non-smokers smokers athletes non-athletes people living at high altitudes people living at low altitudes
  2. 2. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Lung volumes and disease: 2 types: Restrictive: Lung volumes are decreased  ex: pulmonary fibrosis
  3. 3. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Lung volumes and disease: 2 types: Obstructive: Lung volumes are normal but flow rates are impeded  ex: asthma
  4. 4. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ASTHMA: Air pollution can lead to asthma. Asthma is a chronic , inflammatory disease resulting in reversible airflow obstruction. Short-term treatment: Bronchiodilators Long-term treatment: Anti-inflammatory drugs , bronchiodilators
  5. 5. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SMOKING: Smoking injures the cilia of the trachea, and alters the efficiency of their beating so they cannot remove foreign particles (i.e. bacteria ) as effectively. Tar builds up in the lungs from smoking. Tar decreases respiration.
  6. 6. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SMOKING: Smoking causes emphysema . - alveoli walls fuse together, which reduces the surface area for gas exchange.
  7. 7. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>SMOKING: </li></ul><ul><li>Lung with emphysema. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>stop smoking </li></ul><ul><li>surgery, transplant </li></ul>
  8. 8. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SMOKING: Lung cancer is associated with smoking.
  9. 9. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Pneumonia: </li></ul><ul><li>Infection of the lungs, leading to fluid filling the alveolar spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by: </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Other microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Treated with antibiotics </li></ul>
  10. 10. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Bronchitis: </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of bronchi. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by: </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Dust </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke </li></ul><ul><li>These irritate the bronchi, causing them to swell . </li></ul>Treatment: Stop smoking, antibiotics (if caused by bacteria)
  11. 11. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Laryngitis: </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the vocal cords. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by: </li></ul><ul><li>Overuse </li></ul><ul><li>Irritation </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory infection </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment includes resting the voice and prescription medication. </li></ul>
  12. 12. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Hypoxia (altitude sickness): The body cannot get enough oxygen from the air to meet metabolic demands. Symptoms: Shortness of breath, headaches, nausea Short-term adaptation: Breathing rate increases Long-term adaptations: Body produces more red blood cells; more capillary networks

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