* Air at higher altitudes has less oxygen, so lung volume increases to allow more air into the lungs
Larger volumes Smaller volumes males females taller people shorter people non-smokers smokers athletes non-athletes people living at high altitudes people living at low altitudes
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Lung volumes and disease: 2 types: Restrictive: Lung volumes are decreased ex: pulmonary fibrosis
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Lung volumes and disease: 2 types: Obstructive: Lung volumes are normal but flow rates are impeded ex: asthma
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ASTHMA: Air pollution can lead to asthma. Asthma is a chronic , inflammatory disease resulting in reversible airflow obstruction. Short-term treatment: Bronchiodilators Long-term treatment: Anti-inflammatory drugs , bronchiodilators
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SMOKING: Smoking injures the cilia of the trachea, and alters the efficiency of their beating so they cannot remove foreign particles (i.e. bacteria ) as effectively. Tar builds up in the lungs from smoking. Tar decreases respiration.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SMOKING: Smoking causes emphysema . - alveoli walls fuse together, which reduces the surface area for gas exchange.
Treatment includes resting the voice and prescription medication.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Hypoxia (altitude sickness): The body cannot get enough oxygen from the air to meet metabolic demands. Symptoms: Shortness of breath, headaches, nausea Short-term adaptation: Breathing rate increases Long-term adaptations: Body produces more red blood cells; more capillary networks