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11u bio ani 07
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11u bio ani 07

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  • 1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • Lung volumes
    • Factors that affect lung volumes:
    • Sex
    • Height
    • Smoking history
    • Fitness/athleticism
    • Altitude*
    • * Air at higher altitudes has less oxygen, so lung volume increases to allow more air into the lungs
    Larger volumes Smaller volumes males females taller people shorter people non-smokers smokers athletes non-athletes people living at high altitudes people living at low altitudes
  • 2. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Lung volumes and disease: 2 types: Restrictive: Lung volumes are decreased  ex: pulmonary fibrosis
  • 3. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Lung volumes and disease: 2 types: Obstructive: Lung volumes are normal but flow rates are impeded  ex: asthma
  • 4. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ASTHMA: Air pollution can lead to asthma. Asthma is a chronic , inflammatory disease resulting in reversible airflow obstruction. Short-term treatment: Bronchiodilators Long-term treatment: Anti-inflammatory drugs , bronchiodilators
  • 5. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SMOKING: Smoking injures the cilia of the trachea, and alters the efficiency of their beating so they cannot remove foreign particles (i.e. bacteria ) as effectively. Tar builds up in the lungs from smoking. Tar decreases respiration.
  • 6. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SMOKING: Smoking causes emphysema . - alveoli walls fuse together, which reduces the surface area for gas exchange.
  • 7. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • SMOKING:
    • Lung with emphysema.
    • Treatment:
    • stop smoking
    • surgery, transplant
  • 8. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SMOKING: Lung cancer is associated with smoking.
  • 9. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • Pneumonia:
    • Infection of the lungs, leading to fluid filling the alveolar spaces.
    • Caused by:
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Fungi
    • Other microorganisms
    • Treated with antibiotics
  • 10. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • Bronchitis:
    • Inflammation of bronchi.
    • Caused by:
    • Viruses
    • Bacteria
    • Pollution
    • Dust
    • Smoke
    • These irritate the bronchi, causing them to swell .
    Treatment: Stop smoking, antibiotics (if caused by bacteria)
  • 11. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • Laryngitis:
    • Inflammation of the vocal cords.
    • Caused by:
    • Overuse
    • Irritation
    • Respiratory infection
    • Treatment includes resting the voice and prescription medication.
  • 12. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Hypoxia (altitude sickness): The body cannot get enough oxygen from the air to meet metabolic demands. Symptoms: Shortness of breath, headaches, nausea Short-term adaptation: Breathing rate increases Long-term adaptations: Body produces more red blood cells; more capillary networks

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