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11U bio ani 03
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Transcript

  • 1. Nutrition
  • 2. Nutrition
    • 1) Macromolecules:
    • (big molecules)
    • Proteins
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats (Lipids)
    • 2) Vitamins
    • 3) Minerals
    • 4) Fibre
    • 5) Water
  • 3. Nutrition: Macromolecules Macromolecules are broken down by enzymes Enzymes are the proteins responsible for breaking down molecules in your body.
  • 4. Nutrition In general, enzymes are named according to the chemical they break-down followed by an –ase ending. protease  proteins carbohydrase  carbohydrates lipase  lipids Nutrition: Macromolecules
  • 5. Nutrition The majority of enzymes are active in the small intestines . Release of these enzymes is controlled by hormones . Nutrition: Macromolecules
  • 6. Nutrition Nutrition: Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the body's main source of energy . Can be single molecules called monosaccharides . or chains of molecules called polysaccharides .
  • 7. Nutrition Nutrition: Carbohydrates Excess carbohydrates are stored by the body as glycogen and (if too many) body fat . Complex carbohydrates (very large polysaccharides) are the healthiest and give a "full" for feeling longer. Glycogen. Each dot is a sugar molecule.
  • 8. Nutrition Nutrition: Proteins - The average human is 3% nitrogen by mass, and most of this is N is found in protein . - Most abundant in animal products . - Also found in grains , legumes , and nuts .
  • 9. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats Fats are made of fatty acids and glycerol groups . Fatty acids have several chemical bonds between hydrogen and carbon atoms, making them rich in energy. 1g fat = 9 Calories 1g carb = 4 Calories 1g protein = 4 Calories 1g alcohol = 7 Calories
  • 10. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats Fatty acids and glycerol can form the following combinations: Triglyceride: 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol Diglyceride: 2 fatty acids + 1 glycerol Monoglyceride: 1 fatty acid + 1 glycerol
  • 11. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats : Saturated fats: -All fatty acids have single bonds -Usually solid at room temperature Unsaturated fats: -Fatty acids have some double bonds -Usually liquid at room temperature
  • 12. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats : Saturated fats: -All fatty acids have single bonds -Usually solid at room temperature
  • 13. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats There are saturated fats and unsaturated fats : Unsaturated fats: -Fatty acids have some double bonds -Usually liquid at room temperature
  • 14. Nutrition Nutrition: Fats Some fatty acids are essential : Essential fatty acids: -Essential fatty acids are ones that our bodies need but can not make -Must be eaten, are associated with good heath and prevention of heart disease
  • 15. Nutrition Nutrition: Cholesterol Cholesterol: -Essential to cell membranes , steroids , nerve insulation , fat digestion ( bile ), and produces vitamin D -Body manufactures ~2/3 of cholesterol required; ~1/3 of cholesterol acquired through the diet
  • 16. Nutrition Nutrition: Cholesterol Cholesterol: -Cholesterol CANNOT dissolve in water, so it must be transported in the blood in packages known as lipoprotein -lipoproteins are complexes of lipids , cholesterol , and proteins .
  • 17. Nutrition Nutrition: Cholesterol Cholesterol: HDL = high density lipoprotein (more protein, less cholesterol) LDL = low density lipoprotein (less protein, more cholesterol)
  • 18. Nutrition Nutrition: Cholesterol Cholesterol:
    • High levels of LDL are associated with a higher risk of heart disease
    • HDL helps reduce bad cholesterol in the blood.
    • Colloquial terms:
    • HDL = “ good ” cholesterol
    • LDL = “ bad ” cholesterol
  • 19. Nutrition Nutrition: Vitamins Vitamins are organic compounds which the body needs in small amounts . • essential for enzyme activity / cellular function • consumed through diet or produced though beneficial bacteria
  • 20. Nutrition Nutrition: Vitamins 2 types: 1) water soluble – vitamin Bs and C, folic acid • easily removed from the body • easily removed during cooking 2) fat soluble – vitamin A, D, E, K • not easily removed from body  do not need to consume regularly
  • 21. Nutrition Nutrition: Minerals Minerals are inorganic compounds (non-carbon- containing) which the body needs in small amounts . • essential for enzyme activity / cellular function • consumed through diet • Ex. calcium , phosphorus , potassium , iron , zinc
  • 22. Nutrition Nutrition: Minerals If you are getting enough minerals through your diet, should you still take multivitamins / multiminerals ? No! Some minerals prevent other minerals from being absorbed optimally
  • 23. Nutrition Nutrition: Fibre Fibre is cellulose, a polysaccharide from plants. We do not have enzymes to digest cellulose. Cellulose passes through our digestive system intact , but sticks to water and cholesterol along the way.
  • 24. Nutrition Nutrition: Fibre Choose 100% whole wheat products. Vegetables and fruit have some fibre as well. We should all consume ~30g of fibre a day.