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09 bio 08
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  • 1. Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
  • 2. BioaccumulationToxins are entering our ecosystems everyday:• Mercury• PCBs (coolants, adhesives, lubricants, sealants,flame retardants)• Pesticides (like DDT)
  • 3. BioaccumulationAfter these toxins have been taken-up by plants oranimals, they can not be easily excreted or eliminated– they often stay in the animals until they die.
  • 4. Bioaccumulation This means that as the organism ages and continues to eat, the toxins accumulate in their bodies. This is called bioaccumulation.
  • 5. BioaccumulationMany of these toxins collect in the adipose tissue(fat cells). This means that larger people will oftenaccumulate more toxins.
  • 6. BioamplificationBioamplification refers to the large increases oftoxins found in organisms at higher trophic levels.
  • 7. BioamplificationIt only takes a very small concentration of toxin toharm an organism. These concentrations aremeasured in ppm and ppb.ppm = parts per millionppb = parts per billion
  • 8. Bioamplification (1 000 000 L) 1 ppb 1 ppm(1 000 L) 1 mL
  • 9. The Bioaccumulation Factor ~ 15000 ppb ~ 3300 ppb ~ 25 ppbEcologists can calculate ~ 1.6 ppban organismsbioaccumulation factorusing the formula:Bioaccumulation factor = Toxin Concentration in Organism Toxin Concentration in Environment
  • 10. The Bioaccumulation FactorFor example, if a smelt has a DDT concentration of 1.8 ppmand its habitat has a DDT concentration of 0.005 ppm, whatis the smelts Bioaccumulation Factor?Bioaccumulation factor = Toxin Concentration in Organism Toxin Concentration in EnvironmentBioaccumulation factor = 1.8 ppm 0.005 ppm = 360