Bioaccumulation and  Biomagnification
BioaccumulationToxins are entering our ecosystems everyday:• Mercury• PCBs (coolants, adhesives, lubricants, sealants,flam...
BioaccumulationAfter these toxins have been taken-up by plants oranimals, they can not be easily excreted or eliminated– t...
Bioaccumulation This means that as the organism ages and continues to eat, the toxins accumulate in their bodies. This is ...
BioaccumulationMany of these toxins collect in the adipose tissue(fat cells). This means that larger people will oftenaccu...
BioamplificationBioamplification refers to the large increases oftoxins found in organisms at higher trophic levels.
BioamplificationIt only takes a very small concentration of toxin toharm an organism. These concentrations aremeasured in ...
Bioamplification                                 (1 000 000 L)                                 1 ppb                1 ppm(...
The Bioaccumulation Factor                                             ~ 15000 ppb                                        ...
The Bioaccumulation FactorFor example, if a smelt has a DDT concentration of 1.8 ppmand its habitat has a DDT concentratio...
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09 bio 08

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09 bio 08

  1. 1. Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
  2. 2. BioaccumulationToxins are entering our ecosystems everyday:• Mercury• PCBs (coolants, adhesives, lubricants, sealants,flame retardants)• Pesticides (like DDT)
  3. 3. BioaccumulationAfter these toxins have been taken-up by plants oranimals, they can not be easily excreted or eliminated– they often stay in the animals until they die.
  4. 4. Bioaccumulation This means that as the organism ages and continues to eat, the toxins accumulate in their bodies. This is called bioaccumulation.
  5. 5. BioaccumulationMany of these toxins collect in the adipose tissue(fat cells). This means that larger people will oftenaccumulate more toxins.
  6. 6. BioamplificationBioamplification refers to the large increases oftoxins found in organisms at higher trophic levels.
  7. 7. BioamplificationIt only takes a very small concentration of toxin toharm an organism. These concentrations aremeasured in ppm and ppb.ppm = parts per millionppb = parts per billion
  8. 8. Bioamplification (1 000 000 L) 1 ppb 1 ppm(1 000 L) 1 mL
  9. 9. The Bioaccumulation Factor ~ 15000 ppb ~ 3300 ppb ~ 25 ppbEcologists can calculate ~ 1.6 ppban organismsbioaccumulation factorusing the formula:Bioaccumulation factor = Toxin Concentration in Organism Toxin Concentration in Environment
  10. 10. The Bioaccumulation FactorFor example, if a smelt has a DDT concentration of 1.8 ppmand its habitat has a DDT concentration of 0.005 ppm, whatis the smelts Bioaccumulation Factor?Bioaccumulation factor = Toxin Concentration in Organism Toxin Concentration in EnvironmentBioaccumulation factor = 1.8 ppm 0.005 ppm = 360

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