Top 10 Things you need to know for the rest of Chapter 6 Mr. Gibbs Winter 2010
1.) Industrial Revolution in England (Economic Revolution) – Further left the ME behind economically. Even if Raw Materials went from India to Britain, get manufactured in Britain, and sent all the way back to India, it was still cheaper than buying handmade things in the ME. The trade routes around the Southern Tip of Africa and improvements of ships, made this possible.
Industrial Revolution Con’t The Industrial Revolution turned the M.E. into a “backwards consumer market” for example: Cotton bought from Egyptians Sent to England Turned into textiles Re-shipped back to Egypt and sold to Egyptians for cheaper than their handmade goods This happened all over the M.E. The result? Drained of raw materials…and money
2.) French Revolution (Political Revolution) – spread ideas of “Nationalism” and “Liberalism” Nationalism – all people have the right to their own borders, own government, own national army (instead of mercenaries) Liberalism – citizens have basic rights, improvements can be made to our life through education and reform
3.) Trickled into Constantinople O.E.’s attempt at trying to improve – keep pace with Europe – Sultan Selim’s“New Order” organizing, army, taxes, huge era of Reform – wasn’t welcomed right away. Selimwas overthrown and murdered – it wasn’t until 20 years later until the successor of Selim was able to convince the religious leaders of Islam to reform. Too little…too late?
4.) Battle of the Nile – French vs. British – Napoleon led the French army – it opened the rest of the Powers’ eyes to Egypt and its geographical significance – hub of 3 Countries, vast resources South of Egypt . European Powers now felt that if they had control over Ottoman Lands…it would benefit them in the long run. Beginning steps towards WWI
5.) Russia Russia’s desire to move into and control the Middle East was one of the few things that Britain and France could agree on – they both didn’t want to allow that to happen and realized that they needed to contain Russia’s growth into the Region.
6.) Crimean War – 1854-1856 – Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire vs. Russia. Showed how weak and insignificant The OE had become – even though it was fought in territory under their control – they played basically no role in the war itself. Also showed the Ottomans that they need European Allies if they wanted to survive
7.) Imperialism trend that hit European Powers during the second half of the 1800s - desire to build an empire, find new markets, and national honor (nationalism). Impose this belief onto the less civilized parts of the World. Seizing colonies and setting up a system of rules – “spheres of influence” Ottomans fell victim to this often. Europeans felt thatIt was their duty to bring modern technology and education and Christianity to the undeveloped people (muslims).
8.) Tanzimat A second attempt at reviving the dying O.E. end of the janissaries marked this period Tanzimat means “Reorganization” - it included adding Basic Rights of Life Liberty and Property for the Turks, Military and Financial reforms. Hatt-iHumayun – name of the reform edict Ended millets Ended civil authority of religious leaders Guaranteed equality (judicial system) Religious rights for non-Muslims Changed the tax structure Ended torture – reformed prisons Too little too late!!!!
9.) Egypt – Suez Canal Canal linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea. Suez Canal Company were the engineers and workers - a “public” company that was backed by French Investors and The Egyptian Government. Cut the trip from Europe to India in Half. British was left out of the investment – until the Egyptian Government’s financial situation changed – Brits were quick to buy all of their stock in the Suez Canal company – just like that….they were in control of one of the most important financial/trade aspects in the World. Egypt had nothing
10.) Road to WWI Germany was unified in 1870 – a world power – always wanted a railroad from Berlin to Baghdad. Germany was challenging for land in the ME and was challenging Britain any chance they got. At the same time – both countries (ger. & eng) were building huge technologically advance armies. Ottomans were pulled towards Germany’s side (thinking purely in the benefits of the B to B railroad) GB, Russia, and France team up to oppose Germany. Instability in the Balkan Region led to all out war in the summer of 1914. WWI proved to be the end of the Ottoman Empire.