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Chapter 4 – Muhammad And The Nation Of

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  • 1. Chapter 4 – Muhammad and the Nation of Islam Mr. Gibbs Winter 2007
  • 2. Founding of Islam
    • Monotheistic
    • Only one God – “Allah”
    • OT and NT are revelations of God
    • Jesus is not the son of God – a prophet
    • Muhammad – last and most complete
    • Koran – a collection of God’s teachings – as revealed to Muhammad
  • 3. Muhammad’s Birthplace
    • Mecca
    • already a religious and trading center prior to Muhammad’s birth
    • Kaaba
    • Yemen to Syria
    • International crossroads – goods and ideas
  • 4.  
  • 5. Life and times
    • Born in Mecca 570 A.D.
    • Early life
      • Cultural “Religious” Exchange
    • Marriage
      • Children
    • 611 A.D. first revelation
      • Ramadan
  • 6. Preachings
    • Oneness of God
    • Evil of worshipping Idols
    • Judgement Day
    • # of followers began to grow
  • 7. Problems
    • Early success = hatred
    • Wealthy merchants and town leaders
    • $$$
    • 622 A.D. - fled from Mecca
    • Headed for Medina
    • Called the “hijra” (HIJ-rah)
    Solution
  • 8.  
  • 9. Happy Home
    • In 622 , Muhammad and his few hundred followers left Mecca and traveled to Yathrib, the oasis town where his father was buried. The leaders there were suffering through a vicious civil war, and they had invited this man well known for his wisdom to act as their mediator. Yathrib soon became known as Medina, the City of the Prophet. Muhammad remained here for the next six years, building the first Muslim community and gradually gathering more and more people to his side.
  • 10. Islamic Dating Systems
    • After the Hijra
    • A new era – the Islamic calendar starts here – in 622 AD
    • AH after the Hijra
  • 11. Muhammad
    • Supreme judge
    • Ruler
    • Commander in Chief
      • Led raids vs. caravans into Mecca
      • Battle of Badr – 300 vs 1000 – a sign of God’s support
  • 12.  
  • 13. 630 AD
    • Muhammad conquered Mecca
    • Smashed idols set up around the Kaaba
    • Continued to gain followers
    • Set up a code of conduct for Muslims
    • Good website: Timeline of Muhammad’s life
    • http://www.pbs.org/muhammad/timeline_html.shtml
  • 14. Kaaba
  • 15. 5 Pillars of Islam
    • 5 main duties of a Religious Muslim
    • Given in order of importance
      • Shahada
      • Salat
      • Sawm
      • Zakat
      • Hajj
    • What is a “pillar”?
  • 16. Shahada
    • A statement of faith
    • Most basic principle of Islamic Faith
    • There is no God but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God”
  • 17. Salat
    • “ Prayer”
    • Kneel, face Mecca, pray – 5 times a day
    • Muezzin – calls them to prayer from the top of the minaret
    • Wherever they are
    • Special rug or mat, used only for prayer, or in a “clean place”
  • 18. Sawm
    • “ Fasting”
    • Ramadan – the month when God revealed himself to Muhammad
    • Dusk until dawn
    • End of day: great meals, groups, family, friends
    • End of month: large festive holiday
  • 19. Zakat
    • “ charity”
    • Those less fortunate need to be helped
    • Duty for Muslims to give a % of income to charity
  • 20. Hajj
    • “ pilgrimage”
    • Once a lifetime: take a trip to Mecca
    • Mecca – birthplace pf Muhammad
    • Kaaba – (KAH-buh) – large cube shaped structure – housing shrines, a sacred black rock, and covered with a special black cloth
    • located in the center of the great Mosque
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. The Koran
    • Collection of Muhammad’s revelations
    • God – Gabriel – Muhammad
    • Not written down until after 632 AD
    • Completed circa 652
    • “ recite”
    • 114 chapters
  • 26. Al-Fatiha
    • “ The opening”
    • “ the essence of the Koran”
    • No business or contract is done without reciting this
    • First line of every book, walls, houses, shops, cars,