4 Wars


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4 Wars

  1. 1. The 4 Wars Last Pieces of info required for our DBQ Mr. Gibbs Winter 2009
  2. 2. 4 Wars <ul><li>The War of 1948-49 </li></ul><ul><li>The Suez War of 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>The Six Day War </li></ul><ul><li>The War of Yom Kippur </li></ul>
  3. 3. The War of 1948-49 <ul><li>Started the day after the state of Israel was created…The Arabs simply walked across the border and into Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel </li></ul>
  5. 5. War of 1948-49 <ul><li>This is what the new independent state of Israel looked like after the war of 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Treaties gave the following land to the following people…. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Gaza Strip <ul><li>Egypt was given control of The Gaza Strip and the Arabs living there </li></ul>
  7. 7. The West Bank <ul><li>The West Bank was now under the control of Transjordan </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem was split between Transjordan and Israel </li></ul>
  8. 8. “ Palestine” <ul><li>Where is it? </li></ul><ul><li>It no longer exists. </li></ul><ul><li>77% of what was once Palestine is now Israel </li></ul><ul><li>The other 23% is the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (under control of other Arab governments) </li></ul>?
  9. 9. The Fleeing of the Palestinians <ul><li>Hundreds of thousands left “Israel” and became refugees </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs: “We were forced out” </li></ul><ul><li>Jews: “They left on their own” </li></ul>
  10. 10. LAW OF RETURN <ul><li>First Israeli census in 1948: pop is 900,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Return….. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1970 – that number is 2.5 million </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Israeli Dilemma <ul><li>The Arabs who didn’t flee after the war of 1948 make up about 15% of the population. The Israeli Government grants them the same social and political rights as the Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We want an all Jewish State”….but there is still these Arabs living here….. </li></ul><ul><li>We have a dilemma…. </li></ul><ul><li>Do we kick them out? Or do we not have our Jewish state? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Transjordan becomes Jordan <ul><li>British Mandate is over…. </li></ul><ul><li>They are now independent…. </li></ul>
  13. 13. EGYPT <ul><li>In 1922 shortly after WWI – Egypt was given independence…. </li></ul><ul><li>Sort of…British still controlled the Suez Canal </li></ul>
  14. 14. Colonel Gamel Abdel Nasser <ul><li>A fighter in the war of 1948 – an Egyptian war hero </li></ul><ul><li>He overthrew the king….and rose to power…. </li></ul><ul><li>The people loved him because he was angry for the same two reasons they were…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.) The pathetic loss in the war of 1948 (“Israel should have been crushed”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.) The British still in Egypt </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Nasser’s Egypt <ul><li>Had a foreign policy of non-alignment – did not back the Americans or the Russians </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt was in a neutral corner </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Suez War of 1956 <ul><ul><li>Nasser wanted to build the “High Dam at Aswan” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It would supply hydroelectric power and control the annual flooding of the Nile River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Aswan dam was an economic development project and the “jewel of Egypt” </li></ul><ul><li>It was to be paid for by the US and British </li></ul><ul><li>development assistance </li></ul><ul><li>(grants, loans, credits) </li></ul>
  17. 20. However…. <ul><li>Nassar negotiated as well with the Russians….and the US and British withdrew their $$$ for the dam…. </li></ul><ul><li>How did Nassar respond? He took back the Suez Canal…with force. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you mean “took”? Who had the Suez Canal? Who is he taking it back from? (GB and France) </li></ul>
  18. 21. Suez Canal from Space
  19. 23. The Suez War of 1956 <ul><li>Israel British and French invade and defeat the outnumbered Egyptian army </li></ul><ul><li>But not so fast, The US and Soviets convince the Jews, Brits and French to withdraw…. </li></ul><ul><li>Kind of a lame way to end a “war”, but… </li></ul>
  20. 24. Nasser “WINS” <ul><li>British and French withdraw from the Canal – and it is firmly in Egypt’s hands. </li></ul><ul><li>And he “won” it from non Arabs, he was a hero for Muslims in the Middle East </li></ul>
  21. 25. The Six Day War – aka the War of 1967 <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Nasser demanded the removal of UN Peace-keeping troops Sinai Border (to clear the way for war) </li></ul><ul><li>Closed the Gulf of Aqaba (Israel had previously warned this would result in war) </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt signs a military pact with Jordan (Israel feels surrounded) </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Tanks began to move toward the Israeli Border </li></ul>
  22. 26. Gulf of Aqaba
  23. 27. DAY 1 <ul><li>JUNE 5 – Israel attacks Egypt… </li></ul><ul><li>Israel turns the Arabs’ best military force (Egyptian war planes) in the world into a burning pile of metal…. How? </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise attack – they simply bombed the planes while they were on the ground. </li></ul>
  24. 29. DAY 2, 3 and 4 <ul><li>JUNE 6, 7 and 8 – ground troops </li></ul><ul><li>Israelis push the Egyptian army – they flee all the way back to the other side of the Suez Canal </li></ul>
  25. 30. Days 5 and 6 <ul><li>JUNE 9 and 10 – The Israeli troops arrive at the Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li>The Sinai Peninsula is now occupied by Israel </li></ul>
  26. 32. And on the 7 th day….. <ul><li>JUNE 11 – war over, US and Soviets convinced a cease fire </li></ul>
  27. 33. EFFECTS? <ul><li>Israel grew….. </li></ul><ul><li>Sinai Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Gaza Strip </li></ul><ul><li>West Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Golan Heights </li></ul><ul><li>All the light orange is now “occupied” by the Jews </li></ul>
  28. 34. More Effects…. <ul><li>With Egypt beaten, Nasser resigned; the loss of the war was a personal defeat for him. The bold victory of Israel in the Six-Day War shocked the Middle East. (Anwar Sadat takes power) </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem was annexed by the Jews – now they have full political control of the holy city… holy for Jews…holy for Muslims… </li></ul>
  29. 35. The War of Yom Kippur - 1974 <ul><li>Surprise attack by Egypt and Syria on Israel – 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>Israel proves itself militarily - and Egypt is quickly saved by the bell…the US and Soviets once again save them from complete destruction at the hands of the Israeli army. </li></ul>
  30. 36. Egypt after the War of Yom Kippur <ul><ul><li>They signed a peace treaty with Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Camp David Peace Accords” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They had the Sinai Peninsula returned to them </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Peace with the Jews means one thing….no more cheap oil from the Arabs…. </li></ul>
  31. 37. <ul><li>PHEW….. </li></ul>