Unit 1 Biology Chapter 1 - Cells in Action


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Unit 1 Biology Chapter 1 - Cells in Action

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Unit 1 Biology Chapter 1 - Cells in Action

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Unity and Diversity
  2. 2. Key Knowledge <ul><li>Cell structure: prokaryote and eukaryotic cells at light and electron microscope levels; cellular organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Cell functioning: specialised parts of cells and their function; biochemical process including photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of inputs and outputs; general role of enzymes in biochemical activities of cells </li></ul>
  3. 3. System, organs, tissues <ul><li>System: several organs that are interrelated and together perform a specific function </li></ul><ul><li>Organs: structures of the body that perform one or more functions </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues: cells that work together to perform a similar function </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cells – the basic units of life <ul><li>Multicellular – made up of many cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of an organisms </li></ul><ul><li>A cell can survive on its own or has potential to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>Its structure is highly organized and many chemical processes and reactions occur within. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells sense and respond to specific changes in its environments </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to reproduce itself </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in size, shape and activities </li></ul><ul><li>Similarities and differences are used to group or classify cells </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cell Theory <ul><li>1838 – Schleiden </li></ul><ul><li>1839 – Schwann </li></ul><ul><li>Cell theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All living things are composed of one or more cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cell is the smallest entity that retains the properties of life. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cell Theory <ul><li>1849 – Cell division described </li></ul><ul><li>1859 – Virchow – proposed that all cells come from pre-existing cells. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Prokaryotic cells <ul><li>Extremely small </li></ul><ul><li>Have a simple internal structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no membrane-bound organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no membrane-bound nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic cells are grouped with the kingdoms Bacteria and Archaea and include cyanobacteria and bacteria </li></ul>
  8. 8. Eukaryotic cells <ul><li>Eukaryotic cells have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex internal structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane – bound organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane – bound nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic organisms are grouped within the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia </li></ul>
  9. 9. Present in plants and fungi Present but not made of cellulose Cell wall Present: enzymes of photosynthesis attached to internal membrane of chloroplasts Absent: enzymes of photosynthesis attached to lamellae Chloroplasts Attached to internal membrane of mitochondria Attached to plasma membrane Enzymes used for cellular respiration Present Absent Microtubules Present Absent Endoplasmic Reticulum Present but different sizes to prokaryotic ribosomes Present Ribosomes Present Absent Nucleolus Multiple and inside the nucleus Single and free Chromosomes Posses internal membrane-bound organelles Posses no internal membrane bound organelles Organelles Eukaryotic cell Prokaryotic cell Characteristic
  10. 10. Prokaryotes - Eukaryotes <ul><li>Fold an A3 piece of paper in half, on one side draw an annotated diagram of a basic prokaryotic cell – explaining the features of a prokaryotic cell. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other side draw an annotated diagram of a basic eukaryotic cell – explaining the features of an eukaryotic cell. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Taking on different jobs <ul><li>Different types of cells share many similar features (birds eggs, caviar, human nerve cells) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They all actively respire (the chemical process that releases energy from glucose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are all cells that have become specialised to perform a specific function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are all single cells that can be seen without the aid of a microscope </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Taking on different jobs <ul><li>Cells generally grow the size they need to be in order to perform their specific function </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting factor on cell size is its ability to supply the interior of the cell with its requirement and to get rid of waste products. </li></ul><ul><li>SA:V ratio – inward movement of requirements and the outward movement of wastes across the surface area are not fast enough to allow the cell to grow and function effectively. </li></ul>
  13. 13. SA:V ratio <ul><li>As organisms get bigger their surface area / volume ratio gets smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>As organisms become bigger it becomes more difficult for them to exchange materials with their surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Large mammals can easily keep warm – large – small surface area / volume ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Small mammals lose heat very quickly – small – large surface area / volume ratio </li></ul>
  14. 14. Components of cells <ul><li>Plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosol </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Centrioles </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Rough Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi Apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul>
  15. 15. Components of cells <ul><li>Draw an annotated diagram of an cell showing and explaining the organelles and the role that they play in a cell. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Moving in and out <ul><li>Endocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Exocytosis </li></ul>
  17. 17. Coordinating cell activities <ul><li>Nucleus what does it do? </li></ul><ul><li>What cells are they found in? </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear membrane what does it do? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the nucleolus? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Different ways of doing things
  19. 19. Photosynthesis