C2d Extracting Pure Copper
• Pure copper is very useful. It is used to make ________ for
conducting electricity and __________ for plumbing.
• Copper is extracted from an ore called ___________________.
• An ore is a rock that contains a ______________________.
• The copper compound in malachite is _______________________, CuCO3.
There are 2 reactions taking place here:
1. The malachite reacts with the heat:
copper carbonate copper oxide + carbon dioxide
2. The copper is not yet pure and the ________________ needs to be removed.
Carbon is more ___________________ than copper and takes the oxygen
away. This is a ___________________________ reaction.
Copper oxide + carbon copper + carbon dioxide
The copper that is produced is _________________, it contains traces of carbon
and other precious metals that were also in the malachite. To purify the copper it
The Purification of Copper by Electrolysis
• Electrolysis is the decomposition of a compound using electricity.
Anode (+) : impure copper
Cathode (-) : pure copper
Copper sulphate : electrolyte
Reaction at the cathode:
(aq) = aqueous
Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) (s) = solid
Reaction at the anode:
Cu(s) Cu2+(aq) + 2e-
• Mining the malachite and then processing it to produce pure copper requires a lot
of _____________________ and costs a lot of money.
• It can be cheaper to recycle copper because it only uses 15% of the amount of
energy. This also means that less __________________________ is used up
which conserves resources and it reduces ______________________ emissions
which lead to global warming. It also conserves supplies of _________________.
• However, there are disadvantages to recycling copper.
e.g. Local councils do not collect copper for recycling.
• An alloy is a mixture of a ______________ with other elements.
e.g. brass, bronze, solder, steel and amalgam
name of alloy main metals in the alloy Use of alloy
• The properties of an alloy are _________________ to the properties of the
metal from which it is made. These properties make the alloy more useful than
the pure metal.
e.g. Brass is _____________ than copper or zinc. Brass is used for
door handles but copper and zinc would not be strong enough.
• Some alloys are ___________________ because they have a ____________
memory. This has increased the number of uses for alloys.
e.g. ______________ - alloys made from nickel and titanium
• A straight piece of nitinol wire can be bent into the shape of a paperclip.
When it is placed in hot water or an electric current is passed through it, it
goes back to being a straight wire.
• A use for this is the frames for glasses.
1. The materials used to build them
2. Recycling materials from cars
3. The advantages and disadvantages of iron over aluminium
1. Carry out Experiment C2e.1 to investigate the conditions needed for rusting to
2. Carry out the experiment and write it up
3. Answer the questions on the sheet
4. To check that you understand what is happening in each test tube answer the
A B C D E F G
boiled anhydrous salt
water calcium solution acid water acid
1. Explain why test tube B contains boiled water covered in oil. Give as much detail as
2. Explain why test tube C contains calcium chloride. Give as much detail as you can.
The Chemistry Behind Rusting
• ______________ is the only metal that rusts.
• For iron to rust, it must be in contact with _____________ and __________.
• Iron is being ____________________ in the reaction above so rusting is an
example of an ___________________ reaction.
• ___________________ and ______________ accelerate rusting.
• Cars in the UK corrode ___________________ than those in Mediterranean
countries because the Mediterranean climate is much ___________ where as
the UK has more __________________ in the air (rain).
• Aluminium does not corrode in moist conditions because it has a protective
layer of ______________________ which does not flake off the surface.
Comparing the properties of aluminium and iron (steel):
Property How does Aluminium compare to Iron (and steel)
Corrosion in moist air
Steel is much harder and stronger than pure iron which is why it is used to make cars
A table to show some advantages and disadvantages of using steel and aluminium
So, a car built from aluminium instead of steel will be:
What materials are used to build cars?
Metals include: Non-metals include:
For each of these materials you need to be able to say where it is used in a car and
why. Fill in the table on the next sheet to show that you can do this.
What are different materials used for in cars and why?
3 spaces have been left so that if you think of any other materials that are used, you
should make a note of them.
Material What does it make in a Why is this material used for this
Discuss the problems of disposing of cars.
When we have finished with a car it is difficult
to dispose of it. There are two ways to dispose of a car:
Cars can be crushed and thrown into landfill sites
Disadvantage: The problem with recycling is that cars are made from a number
of different materials (see previous page) and they need to be ____________
before recycling can take place. In particular, it is time consuming to separate
all of the different ________________.
Note that at the moment a lot of metals are melted down and
recycled but most of the other materials go to landfill
The Law LEARN THIS FACT
The Law LEARN THIS FACT
The European Union has passed a law saying that a minimum of _____ of the
The European Union has passed a law saying that a minimum
materials in a car must be recyclable. This will rise to ______ by 2015.
of 85% of the materials in a car must be recyclable. This
will rise to 95% by 2015