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Food , Nutrition and Culture

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  • Today I will talk to you about food how food, nutrition and culture are interrelated
  • Transcript

    • 1. FOOD, NUTRITION & CULTURE ‘ Feeding oneself and one’s offspring is the first concern of all living creatures’
    • 2. WHY IS THE ACQUISITION OF FOOD SO IMPORTANT?
      • Question answered by the old adage ‘ We are what we eat .’
      • All living creatures need to ‘take in nutrients to live.’
      • Nutrition – the science that deals with the body’s ability to transform nutrients found in FOOD into FUEL & FLESH .
      Calories Muscle & Tissue
    • 3. PERSPECTIVES ON NUTRITION
      • To scientists , nutrition is the study of:
        • The nutrients found in foods
        • The body’s handling of nutrients to maintain health
      • Nutrients (some of which provide energy for processes in the body) are substances that can promote:
        • Growth
        • Maintenance
        • Repair
      For many, nutrition is all about losing weight!
    • 4. WHAT IS FOOD?
      • Food is a conduit for nutrients.
      • It is one central thing about human experience that can open up both our senses and our experiences to our place in the world.
        • – Alice Waters
      Food is culturally defined, what is considered a food in Culture A is not necessarily a food in Culture B. OCTOPUS MEXICAN FOODS ACKEE AND BREADFRUIT PEARBUSH BUDS
    • 5. THE NUTRIENTS
      • Whereas there are many different foods. There are only six classes of nutrients namely:
        • carbohydrates (CHO)
        • proteins
        • fats
        • vitamins
        • minerals
        • water
      • Usually, more than one class of nutrients is represented in a food (e.g., ( CHO, fats, proteins, water, minerals [e.g., Ca] and vitamins [e.g., Vitamin D] are in milk .
    • 6. TYPES OF NUTRIENTS protein Vitamin c Fatty acids
        • Organic
        • (with C- C or C- H bonds)
          • CHO,
          • Proteins
          • Fats
          • Vitamins
      water Sodium and Chlorine ions
        • Inorganic
          • Water
          • Minerals .
    • 7. ENERGY YIELDING NUTRIENTS
      • Carbohydrates
        • glucose, (preferred energy source) fructose and galactose
      • Fats
        • fatty acids and glycerol
      • Proteins
        • amino acids
    • 8.
      • Vitamins - only organic nutrient that does not supply energy but is needed to get energy from foods.
      • Essential nutrient - body cannot make enough of and must get from food.
      • Some dietary and lifestyle practices (smoking, inactivity, drinking alcohol) are risk factors for many health conditions.
      • Substances (non-nutrients) in foods are phytochemicals that give foods the characteristic taste and smell.
      MORE FOOD RELATED FACTS ….
    • 9. FOOD CHOICES
      • Advertising
      • Availability
      • Convenience
      • Economy
      • Comfort
      • Ethnicity
      • Habit
      • Personal Preference
      • Positive Associations
      • Geographical location
      • Social Pressure
      • Values and beliefs
      • Body weight
      • Select foods to provide adequate amounts of nutrients and energy!
      • When humans eat, foremost in their minds is that they are consuming foods, not nutrients!
      • The following influence food choices:
      • Nutritional Value
      pizza
    • 10. CHALLENGE OF CHANGING FOOD HABITS
      • Food is about more than feeding the body. It is embedded in family life, culture and religious ritual.
      • Food has always been the most direct, intimate tie to a nurturing earth and a primary means of bonding with each other.
      • Food has helped us to know where and who we are.
    • 11.
      • Digestion – process of breaking food into small substances to be absorbed by the body and subsequently used for fuel, growth, maintenance and repair.
      RELEASING NUTRIENTS FROM FOOD Simple (e.g., phagocytosis- engulf and form food vacuoles in which food is broken down in the unicellular amoeba). Complex (e.g., cooking and chewing food before introducing it to the sophisticated multi-organ, digestive system in multi-cellular humans).
    • 12. PRODUCTS OF DIGESTION (Energy Nutrients) Gastro- intestinal System CHO FATS PROTEINS GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE GALACTOSE FATTY ACIDS GLYCEROL AMINO ACIDS
    • 13.
      • Food energy measured in calories .
      • A calorie is not a component of food .
        • 1g fat = 9 calories
      1g CHO = 4 calories
        • 1g protein = 4 calories
        • 1 g alcohol = 7 calories
        • (alcohol is not a nutrient)
      MEASURING FOOD ENERGY
    • 14.
      • Plants store energy as starch.
      • Humans eat plants and other animals that have also eaten plants.
      ENERGY
      • Plants use the sun’s energy to combine carbondioxide and water to form glucose and oxygen.
      6H 2 O + 6CO 2 = C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
    • 15. The Cycle of life begins with the sun! The Energy Cycle
    • 16. THE ABC… OF A NUTRITIOUS DIET
      • Adequacy
      • Balance
      • Calorie control
      • Moderation
      • Nutrient Density
      • Variety
    • 17. DIETARY GUIDELINES I am inebriated! Not to be emulated!
    • 18. NUTRITION AND HEALTH
      • Health professionals agree that the overall composition of the diet has an important effect on health.
      • Eating too much fat, sat. fat and cholesterol and not eating enough vegetables, fruits, and fiber has been linked to an increase in heart disease and other cancers.
      • The federal government constantly revises its official U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans to help consumers choose a healthy diet.
      • These guidelines make Recommendations for Americans 2 years of age and older.
    • 19. NUTRITION GOALS
      • Disease Related
      • Reduce coronary heart disease
      • Reduce cancer deaths
      • Decrease incidence of diabetes
      • Reduce prevalence of osteoporosis and
      • Reduce dental caries
    • 20. HOW MUCH FOOD DO WE NEED?
      • RDA (recommended dietary allowances)
        • Primary nutrient intake standards for US for many years.
      • DRI (dietary reference intake)
        • Recently replaced RDA as primary standards
        • Expands on RDAs
    • 21. DRI GROUPS (dietary reference intake)
      • Recommendations made for various age and gender groups as follows:
        • Men
        • Women
        • Pregnant and lactating women
        • Children
        • Teens
        • Elderly
    • 22. MEAL PLANNING GUIDES
      • Food group plan
      • Exchange system
      • Daily Food Guide
        • (Food Pyramid)
    • 23. EXCHANGE SYSTEM
      • Originally developed for diabetics
      • Lists of foods that can be exchanged
      • Food values are approximations
      • User makes an educated approximation
      = =
    • 24.
      • Let the Pyramid guide your food choices.
      • Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains.
      • Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily.
      • Keep food safe to eat!
      CHOOSING FOODS ………
    • 25. FOOD LABELS
      • Food labels provide the following information:
        • Common name of product.
        • Name and address of manufacturer, packer or distributor.
        • Net contents (wt, measure or count).
        • Nutrient content of product
        • Serving size
        • Servings per container
        • Calories/calories from fat
        • Nutrient amounts and percentages of Daily Values
        • Daily values and calories/gram reminder
        • Ingredients
    • 26. CHECK THE FOOD LABEL BEFORE YOU BUY
      • Food labels have several parts:
        • Front panel,
          • Added nutrients (e.g., “enriched grain/pasta” means thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and folic acid have been added.
        • Nutrition Facts,
        • Ingredients list,
          • What’s in the food including e.g., added fats, or sugars.
          • Ingredients listed in descending order by weight.
    • 27. USING THE NUTRITION FACTS
        • Look at the % Daily Value (%DV) column to see whether a food is high or low in saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium.
        • If you want to consume more of a nutrient (e.g., Calcium), choose foods with a higher %DV.
        • Foods with 5%DV or less contribute a small amount of that nutrient. Those with 20% or more contribute a large amount.
      • Nutrition Facts serving sizes may differ from Food Guide Pyramid (e.g., 2 ozs of dry macaroni yields about 1 cup cooked, or two [½ cup] Pyramid servings).
    • 28. HELPFUL HINTS
      •     Use the Food Guide Pyramid to help select healthy foods.
      •     Eat a variety of plant foods, including whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
      •    Eat some low-fat dairy products and low- fat foods from the meat and beans group.
      •   Enjoy fats and sweets occasionally.
    • 29. DIETARY ASSESSMENT
      • The following dietary assessment methods are used:
      • 24-Hour recall
      • Food Record/Diary
      • Food Frequency Questionnaire
    • 30. KEEPING TRACK………
      • Food Record
      • Do the following:
      • Record everything you
      • eat and drink for 3
      • consecutive days
      • Amount (ozs, g)
        • Time eaten
        • Mood before and after each meal
      • Note other things you did that same day
      Chicken Bread
    • 31. QUIZ How many calories does this meal of 110 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol? a. 160 b. 345 c. 560 d. 755
      • The Exchange System of meal planning was originally developed for people with
      • terminal diseases.
      • diabetes.
      • c. cardiovascular disease.
      • d. life- threatening obesity.
      Gram for gram, which of the following provides the most energy? a. fats b. alcohol c. proteins d. carbohydrates Teacher’s Pet
    • 32. Assignment : Check the RDA (recommended dietary allowances) in your country, if any. A+
    • 33. REFERENCES
      • Whitney E, Rolfes S. Understanding Nutrition. 7 th ed. New York: West Publishing Company; 1996.
      • Lapp é F, Lapp é A. Hopes Edge: The Diet of a Small Planet . New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putman, 2002.
      • Google Image Search. Available at: http:// www.google.com . Accessed June 2004.

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