Point of View
Stick to third-person point of view as much as
If you have to refer to yourself for a valid reason, use
“I.” Do not refer to yourself as “this writer,” “this
author,” or “this researcher.”
Valid reasons include describing the steps you took in
conducting and experiment or using a personal
anecdote to help support a point.
Hard and Soft Evidence
Facts and statistics – hard evidence
Examples and illustrations – soft evidence
Expert opinion – soft evidence
Fact versus Opinion
Facts are objective
Opinions are subjective
Objective means that something is provable,
verifiable, and true.
Subjective means that something cannot be proven
one way or the other, is not verifiable, and is therefore
Research Report versus Paper
A research report is filled with facts and does not argue
anything or advocate one position or the other.
A research paper takes a position; however, it builds a
case with hard evidence and facts.
The more hard evidence and facts, the stronger the
paper. The more soft evidence and opinion, the
weaker the paper.