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# Software Basics

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• 1. Software Basics Introduction to Computer Science 2007-2008
• 2. Aims • Describing main sw categories and their relationship • Explaining relationship between algorithms and programs • Discussing factors that make apps useful • Describing the role of operative systems • Outlining the evolution of interfaces 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 3. How the sw works? thinks algorithm Problem: natural language is ambiguous 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 4. How the sw works? algorithm program … but computers can’t understand thinks that writes 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 5. How the sw works? program (source code) executable algorithm writes (binary code) thinks generates 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 6. Example Algorithm 1. Ask the user for a number 2. Multiply it by 2 3. Show the result on the screen 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 7. Example Source code #include <stdio.h> void main() { int num, double; printf( “Enter a number: “ ); scanf( “%d”, &num ); double = num * 2; printf(“Twice %d is %dn”, num, double ); } 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 8. Example Binary code 010110011101110000001000001111010001 111011111000101111100010001001001111 001001101011100001111001001101011000 110111001001100111100010110011100010 001011011011011010111010010100011111 000011001000111000100011101111000101 010010100100110011111110011100111000 111110111110110100011100001110000100 101111010011110110010011100001101110 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 9. Development software Software Application software classiﬁcation System software 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 10. Development software • Assisting programmers to write software • Typical tools Compiler IDE Text editor Debugger 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 11. Application software • Why do we use application sw? • visual metaphors of the real world • extend human capabilities 4626. Introd to Computer Science (pictures from tecnomarketer)
• 12. Application software Vertical market • Examples: accounting, library cataloguing or restaurant management • limited market (high cost) • sometimes developed for just one customer Speciﬁc software for a sector 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 13. Application software Suites • Common applications • Used in many ﬁelds (home, ofﬁce, education, administration….) • Sold separately or in a package (suite) Apps that “work well together” 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 14. Application software Integrated packages • Set of applications sold in a block • Easy earning • Limited functionality (but enough) • Cheaper Share the same environment 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 15. System software • Manages communications between hw & sw • Abstraction from hw details (virtual machine) (source: FFP Basic http://iaf-bs.de) 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 16. Device drivers • Communicates computer and I/O devices • Extends computer (open architecture) • Brokers to access the device • You can get them • included in the OS • provided with the device (install CD) • owned by a third company (buy it) 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 17. Operative systems • brokers between users/programs & Hw • isolations layer • programs compatibility • main tasks • ease the use of the computer • use the software efﬁciently 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 18. OS functions • communications with peripherals (I/O) • process management (multitasking) • memory management (protection & virtual mem) • resource monitoring for accounting and safety • ﬁle system management • network communication coordination 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 19. Utility programs • System maintenance tools • Executed apart from OS • We can ﬁnd them… • incorporated into the OS (disk defrag) • provided by others (antivirus) 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 20. Additional considerations Documentation • instructions about how to install them • tutorials • reference manuals • help ﬁles • on line help systems • support services, FAQ 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 22. Additional considerations Upgrading • periodically, companies sell new versions • reasons: improvements, bugs, adaptation to other SW (OS) • versions identiﬁed by numbers (decimals for minor changes) • right to free updates during a period 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 23. Additional considerations Compatibility • constraints about • operative systems computer and resources (Windows, MacOS, Linux) • examples: CPU, memory, free HD space • sometimes, version: Windows 95, 98, NT, Me, 2000, XP,Vista.. Hardware Software 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 24. Additional considerations Licensing • you don’t buy sw, you buy a license • individual and corporative licenses • main limitation: number of computers and right to copy (backup) • EULA (End User License Agreement) • license terms • disclaimer terms (limited liability) 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 25. Additional considerations Distribution • proprieraty • freeware • shareware • open source / free software • demo • semi free • adware • public domain 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 26. User interface • character console: • metaphors. desktop, command line (MSDOS) folders, documents… • graphical user interface • active elements: (GUI) • icons • visual concepts • buttons • controls individual points on the screen • windows • Apple MacOS (1984) • scrolling bars 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 27. MS-DOS 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 28. Windows 3.11 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 29. Windows 95 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 30. Windows XP 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 31. Windows Vista 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 32. Linux 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 33. Mac OS X (Leopard) 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 34. File system management • speciﬁc folders for user’s documents • search tools by name or content (Google Desktop) • Speciﬁc tools for special ﬁles (iTunes) 4626. Introd to Computer Science
• 35. Multi-user OS UNIX • preferred OS for mainframes & workstations • versions: Solaris (Sun), HP-UX (HP), Aix (IBM) IRIX (Silicon Graphics) Linux • Unix versions for PCs • Distributions: Ubuntu, Suse, RedHat… 4626. Introd to Computer Science