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Phases of the moon
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Phases of the moon

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  • 1. Yo Yo YoPhases of the Moon, Gee Phases of the Moon 1
  • 2. Earth Moon System• The average distance from the Moon to the Earth is 384,404 km. – Closest approach is Perigee 356,334 km. – Farthest is Apogee 406,610 km.• Diameter of the Moon is 3475.9 km = 0.27 diameter of the Earth (12756 km)• Mass is 1/80th that of Earth.• Volume 1/49th that of the Earth. Phases of the Moon 2
  • 3. Exploration of the Moon• 3 human space flight programs:1. Project Mercury: Alan Shepard2. Project Gemini: 2 men in space3. Apollo Program• Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo spacecraft were sent to the moon.• Apollo 1 disaster (fire on launch pad)• 12 people have walked on the moon Phases of the Moon 3
  • 4. Buzz AldrinApollo 11 Phases of the Moon 4
  • 5. James IrwinApollo 15 Phases of the Moon 5
  • 6. John YoungApollo 16 Phases of the Moon 6
  • 7. Harrison SchmittApollo 17 (last Apollo astronaut to step foot on the moon) Phases of the Moon 7
  • 8. What is it like on the moon?• FGravity is 1/6th that of Earth• Not strong enough to hold gases• No atmosphere• Temperature Range: 135oC to -170oC• No wind, no weather, no erosion• Frozen ice at poles Phases of the Moon 8
  • 9. Phases of the Moon 9
  • 10. The Lunar Surface Phases of the Moon 10
  • 11. Maria: dark surfaces, reflect little light.-once thought to be bodies of surface water-actually dark solidified lavaRilles: run through maria, lava channels thatlook like dry riverbedsCraters: bowl-shaped surface depressions-most from impacts 4 billion years ago-some have diameters 250km acrossNo erosion means the surface has not changedmuch in 4 billion years! Phases of the Moon 11
  • 12. Charles M Duke next to a craterApollo 16 (youngest person to walk on the moon) Phases of the Moon 12
  • 13. The Moon• The Moon shines by reflected sunlight. – On average, it reflects about 7% of the incident light from the sun. – The Moon appears about 400,000 times fainter than the Sun in the sky.• The phases of the Moon are due to the relative position of the earth, moon and sun. – A common misconception is that the phases of the Moon are caused by “the shadow of the Earth on the moon.” Phases of the Moon 13
  • 14. Phases of the Moon 14
  • 15. Phases of the Moon 15
  • 16. Phases of the Moon 16
  • 17. Phases of the Moon 17
  • 18. Phases of the Moon Phase Moonrise Transit MoonsetNew Sunrise Noon SunsetWaxing Crescent 9 a.m. 3 p.m. 9 p.m.First Quarter Noon 6 p.m. MidnightWaxing gibbous 3 p.m. 9 p.m. 3 a.m.Full Moon 6 p.m. Midnight 6 a.m.Waning Gibbous 9 p.m. 3 a.m. 9 a.m.Third Quarter Midnight 6 a.m. NoonWaning Crescent 3 a.m. 9 a.m. 3 p.m. Phases of the Moon 18
  • 19. Orbit of the Moon• The time it takes the Moon to go through its phases is called the synodic period and is 29.5 days.• The time it takes the Moon to orbit the Earth with respect to the stars is the sidereal period and is 27.3 days.• The orbit of the Moon is inclined by 5 degrees with respect to the ecliptic. Phases of the Moon 19
  • 20. Lunar Lunacy• Another common misconception is that the Moon affects the weather, the number of births, the number of arrests, and the number of emergency room admissions. Phases of the Moon 20
  • 21. Lunar Lunacy• The astronomer George Abell studied the birth rate as a function of the phase of the Moon. – He looked at 11,691 live births at the UCLA hospital between March 17, 1974 and April 30, 1978 and found no correlation. – He then narrowed it down to the 8,142 natural (not caesarean) births and found no correlation. Phases of the Moon 21
  • 22. Lunar Lunacy• The human female menstrual cycle averages 28 days, not 29.5. – If it is influenced by the lunar phases, then all mammals should have the same cycle length. • Guinea pigs 11 days, rats and mice 5 days • Sheep 16 days, chimpanzees 37 days • Cows and horses 21 days • Opossum 28 days Phases of the Moon 22
  • 23. Phases of Venus Phases of the Moon 23
  • 24. Rotation of the Moon• The Moon always presents the same face towards Earth. – Another common misconception is that this means that the Moon does not rotate. – However, in order to keep the same face toward Earth, the Moon must rotate once every orbit. – The far side of the Moon is not dark, it gets just as much sunlight as the near side. Phases of the Moon 24
  • 25. Near Side of the Moon Phases of the Moon 25
  • 26. Far Side of the Moon Phases of the Moon 26
  • 27. Rotation of the Moon Phases of the Moon 27
  • 28. Mark Twain• “Everyone is a Moon, and has a dark side which he never shows to anybody.” – Mark Twain Phases of the Moon 28
  • 29. Misconception:Dark Side of the Moon• The “Dark Side” of the Moon should really be called the “Far Side.” – The far side gets just as much light as the near side. For example, during a new moon, the near side of the Moon is dark, and the far side of the Moon is fully illuminated! – http://www.badastronomy.com/bad/misc/dark_side.html Phases of the Moon 29
  • 30. Sorry Pink Floyd Fans… Roger, David, Rick, and Nick got it wrong! One of the best selling albums of all time! Phases of the Moon 30
  • 31. Lunar Libration• You might expect that if the Moon always keeps the same face pointed toward Earth, that we can only see 50% of the Moon. – However, the Moon appears to rock back and forth. This back and forth rocking is called libration. • In its elliptical orbit around Earth, the Moon moves faster when close to the Earth and slower when farther. Since its rotation is fairly constant, we get to see a little bit around each limb. • In addition, the orbit of the Moon is tilted with respect to the ecliptic, so we get to see somewhat beyond the poles as the Moon moves above and below the ecliptic. • 59% of the Moon is visible Moon on Earth. Phases of the to us 31
  • 32. Phases of the Moon 32
  • 33. Misconception: The Size ofthe Rising Moon• Many people believe the rising moon is larger than when the Moon is high overhead. – The Moon is actually slightly larger when it is high overhead! – The effect is an illusion, however, the illusion is not well understood! See these links for more details: • http://www.badastronomy.com/bad/misc/moonbig.html • http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/3d/moonillu.htm Phases of the Moon 33
  • 34. Moonrise Phases of the Moon 34
  • 35. Moon IllusionWhichcircle islarger?They areboth thesame size! Phases of the Moon 35
  • 36. Does the size change?• Yes• The moon appears 10% larger during Perigee (closer) than it does during Apogee• Tough to see this difference in size Phases of the Moon 36
  • 37. Interesting moon factoids• In 1961 President John F. Kennedy said: "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."• At 10:17 pm on July 20th, 1969 (six hours after landing) Neil Armstrong took his “small step.” He was joined by fellow astronaut “Buzz” Aldrin minutes later. Michael Collins orbited overhead. They were part of the Apollo 11 mission.• Armstrong really said, “This is one small step for a man,” and not “one small step for man” as is commonly reported.• No weather on the moon, no erosion, so something as delicate as a footstep will last a very long time! Phases of the Moon 37
  • 38. Here fishy fishy… Some believe that the best fishing takes place during a full or new moon. Phases of the Moon 38
  • 39. Phases of the Moon 39