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  • What is expected from the student
  • What is expected from the student
  • Discuss astronomical analogs: disks of galaxies, disks in which planets form, accretion disks…
  • What is expected from the student
  • What is expected from the student
  • What is expected from the student

Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. The Solar System
    • Observations
      • Ordered motions of objects
      • Two types of planets – Terrestrial (Solid) vs. Jovian (Gas)
        • For example, Mars vs. Jupiter
      • Asteroids and comets
      • Meteoroids, Meteors, Meteorites
      • Exceptions to ordered motions
        • Tilt of Earth’s axis, Earth’s Moon, Pluto
    • Is there a theory that can explain what we see? Yes!!
  • 3. The Solar System : Sun, Terrestrial, and Jovian planets
    • Terrestrial (inner) planets
    • Small
    • contains the heavier elements (Fe, Si, O)
    • rocky shell over a metallic core
    • Accretion began 4.567 billion years ago
    • It took about 0.1 billion years (100 million years) for planets to form
    • Juvian (outer) planets
    • mostly volatile gases (H,He)
    • same composition as the sun,
    • but internal pressure is too low
    • for nucleo-synthesis to take place
    99.8 % of the total mass of the solar system resides in the sun
  • 4. Solar Nebular Theory
    • Solar System formed through the collapse of a large cloud of gas under its own gravity
    Lagoon Nebula Eagle Nebula
  • 5. Nebular Theory
  • 6. Nebula Cloud of dust and gas in space
  • 7. Formation of our solar system: The nebular hypothesis (Kant, 1755)
  • 8. Gravitational Collapse
    • Lets look at an animation!
  • 9. Angular Momentum Conservation also explains why objects rotate faster as they shrink in radius:
  • 10. From Cloud to Solar System
    • Energy Conservation
      • As the nebula contracts, the energy is concentrated in a smaller area. This, in turn, heats the cloud
    • Ang. Momentum Cons.
      • Causes the cloud to spin faster
    • Cloud Flattens
      • The lighter material floats to the outer edges.
      • The more dense material stays towards the center.
      • In our solar system, this was the formation of our inner solid and outer gaseous planets.
  • 11. How do planets form?
    • Through accretion (collecting of material)
      • Small particles are able to build larger complexes of particles through electromagnetic forces
      • Eventually the complex becomes large enough to “attract” pieces through gravitation – planetesimals
      • Only the largest planetesimals survive to become planets
      • The smaller pieces collide and merge with the larger ones or are broken up by gravitational forces
    • Question: Why are all of the planets very nearly spherical in structure?
  • 12. Formation of our solar system: The nebular hypothesis (Kant, 1755)
  • 13. Planetesimals
  • 14. Formation of our solar system: The nebular hypothesis (Kant, 1755)
  • 15. Why are there two types of planets?
    • It boils down to temperature!
    • Gas in the solar nebula was mostly hydrogen and helium, but there were trace amounts of hydrogen compounds, rock, and metals
    • Inner parts of disk are “hotter” than outer parts
    • Rocks can be solid at much higher temperatures than ice
    • Inside the “frost line” too hot for hydrogen compounds to form
    • Outside the “frost line ” cold enough for gases and ices to condense
  • 16. .2% 1,000 – 1,600 K Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Aluminum (Al) Metals .4% 500 – 1300 K Various Rock 1.4% < 150 K Water (H20), Methane (CH4), Ammonia (NH3) Hydrogen Compounds 98% Do not condense in nebula Hydrogen (H), Helium (He) Hydrogen and Helium Gas Relative Abundance in Solar System Condensation Temperature Examples
  • 17. Planet Formation
    • Terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) all formed 0.3 AU from the sun.
      • Rock could condense beyond this distance
    • Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) all formed beyond the frost line (3.5 AU)
      • Hydrogen compounds formed the cores of these planets
    • Continues to support nebular theory
    • What about planet orbits?
      • But more questions remain
  • 18. Earth formation Nebula forms out of H, He clouds and fusion products from now dead stars. Gravity pulls gas and dust inward, and rotation makes a accretionary disk. The proto-sun is at the center and fusion begins when it is hot enough. Heavier elements concentrate in the inner rings. Collisions and gravitational attraction leads to the formation of planetesimals. Gravity reshapes the proto-Earth into a sphere Soon after Earth formed, a Mars-size planet collided with Earth, blasting debris into space that will form our Moon. Volcanic gases form the atmosphere, and as Earth cools, moisture condenses and rains into oceans. Some gases may have come from passing comets.
  • 19. Does this theory make sense?
    • We observe many other stars forming from interstellar clouds with circumstellar disks
    • What has yet to be explained?
  • 20.
    • List the 9 planets in our solar system.
    • Mercury
    • Venus
    • Earth
    • Mars
    • Jupiter
    • Saturn
    • Uranus
    • Neptune
    • Pluto (dwarf planet)
  • 21. 2. List each planet and the main facts about each.
  • 22. Mercury
    • smallest planet
    • no atmosphere
    • heavily cratered
    • smooth terrain (north)
    • (old volcanic activity)
    • deep slopes
    • 1 rotation = 59 days
    • 1 revolution = 88 days
    • Temp: 800 F to -279 F
  • 23. Venus
    • 1 revolution: 225 days
    • 1 rotation: 243 days
    • Thick clouds
    • Volcanic and Tectonic activity (present)
    • 80% plains covered by volcanic flows
    • Temp: 887 F
    • Atmosphere is 97% CO2
  • 24. Earth
    • The Oasis of the Solar System
    • 1 rotation: 23 hours, 56 minutes
    • 1 revolution: 365.24 days
    • Liquid water
    • Plenty of nitrogen and oxygen
    • needed for life
    • Earth rotates at 1,532 ft per sec
    • Earth revolves at 18 miles per sec
  • 25. Mars
    • The red planet (FeO)
    • 1 rotation: 24 hours, 37 min.
    • 1 revolution: 687 days
    • White polar caps
    • Large dust storms
    • Hurricane force winds
    • Large volcanoes and canyons (Olympus Mons and Valles Marineris)
    • Temp: - 94 F to – 148 F
    • Two moons: Phobos and Deimos (asteroids)
  • 26.  
  • 27.  
  • 28. The Asteroid Belt
    • Asteroids are small bodies that are left over from the beginning of the solar system
    • They are rocky objects with round or irregular shapes up to several hundred km across, but most are much smaller.
    • May be the remains of an early planet which broke up.
    • The chances of an asteroid colliding with Earth are very small! But some do come close to Earth, like Hermes (closest approach of 777,000 km).
  • 29. Jupiter
    • largest planet (11 earths in face)
    • 1 rotation = 10 hours
    • 1 revolution = 12 years
    • Great RED Spot – a cyclonic storm
    • hydrogen-helium atmosphere
    • winds cause light and dark bands
    • immense gravity
    • gigantic ocean of liquid hydrogen
    • 63 moons (Europa, Io, Callisto, Ganymede)
  • 30. Saturn
    • 1 revolution: 29.46 years
    • 1 rotation: 10 hours, 39 minutes
    • Rings (10 m thick) made of ice and rock particles
    • Winds up to 637.5 mph
    • Large cyclonic storms
    • 60 moons (Titan, Mimas (death star))
  • 31. Uranus
    • Rotates on its side (98 o )
    • Complex ring system
    • 1 revolution: 84.01 years
    • 1 rotation: 17 hours, 54 min
    • 27 moons (Miranda, Puck)
  • 32. The Kuiper Belt
    • Region of the Solar System extending beyond the planets extending from the orbit of Neptune to the outer edge of the solar system
    • Similar to the asteroid belt, but objects are frozen or icy.
    • comets : lumps of ice and dust, tails point away from the sun, have very long orbital periods.
    • Examples of Comets: Halley’s (76 years), Hale-Bopp (Heaven’s Gate Cult), Shoemaker-Levy (plunged into Jupiter in 1994).
    • Interactive Comet Animation
  • 33. Kuiper Belt
  • 34. Neptune
    • Discovered in 1846, mathematical prediction
    • 1 revolution: 164 days
    • 1 rotation: 18 hours
    • Winds up to 625 mph
    • Great DARK spot – a large rotating storm
    • 13 moons (Triton)
  • 35. Pluto
    • Smaller than our moon!
    • 1 revolution: 248 years
    • 1 rotation: 6 days, 9 hours
    • classified as a dwarf planet
    • Average temp: 346 F
    • Dirty ice ball
    • Part of Kuiper Belt?
    • Old Moon of Neptune?
  • 36. List the terrestrial planets. Mercury Venus Earth Mars
  • 37. What does the term, “terrestrial” mean? Earth-like
  • 38. List the jovian planets. Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
  • 39. What does the term, “jovian” mean? Jupiter-like
  • 40. What are the terrestrial planets made of? Rocky and metallic substances
  • 41. What are the jovian planets made of? Hydrogen and Helium Gas H compunds (ex. Ammonia, Methane)
  • 42. Planetesimals Small, irregular shaped bodies resulting from colliding bits of matter.
  • 43. Asteroids and Comets Ida Hale-Bopp
    • Asteroids – Rocky leftover planetesimals
    • Comets - Icy leftover planetesimals
  • 44. Asteroid Small rocky bodies
  • 45. Comet Pieces of rocky and metallic materials
  • 46. Coma The glowing head on a comet
  • 47. Meteoroid A small solid particle traveling through space.
  • 48. When is a meteoroid called a shooting star? When it enters the earth’s atmosphere.
  • 49. Meteor A meteoroid that burns up in earth’s atmosphere.
  • 50. Meteorite A meteoroid that reaches the earth’s surface.
  • 51. Other Solar Systems?
    • Nearly 600 others detected
    • Can not detect directly
      • Even for the largest planets, light from the star overwhelms any light from the planet
    • Use indirect evidence to search for planets
      • Gravitational tugs