Going Global


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Going Global

  1. 1. Going Global Cameron Dunn Chief Examiner, Edexcel
  2. 2. What is globalisation? <ul><li>“ The growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross border transactions in goods and services, freer international capital flows , and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology ” (IMF) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Factors <ul><li>Internet and Satellite: financial flows, business decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Falling cost of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Containerisation </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap air travel, and air freight </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-border road and rail networks </li></ul><ul><li>English: international language of business </li></ul><ul><li>MONEY, GOODS and PEOPLE move more easily than ever before. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Globalisation: getting connected <ul><li>Global networks come in a variety of forms. They can be networks of: </li></ul><ul><li>Business and Trade – physical and financial flows. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication networks – the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Transport networks – air travel, container /shipping </li></ul><ul><li>Production networks – particularly TNCs </li></ul><ul><li>Political networks – economic / trade ties </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic networks – flows of people </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The map below shows internet connectivity by connection density. </li></ul><ul><li>This is related partly to population density, but also to level of development. </li></ul><ul><li>It clearly shows the global economic cores, but barely manages to trace the outline of Africa: </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>An easy way to find out who is connected, or not, is to examine the pattern of a major TNC. </li></ul><ul><li>Below is information for MacDonalds. Note the importance of the three global core areas, and the lack of presence in Africa. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Global Hubs: megacities and world cities <ul><li>‘ cores’ with intense connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>some are World Cities such as London and Tokyo. </li></ul><ul><li>Others have special attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Many headquarter major TNCs </li></ul><ul><li>diverse populations with demographic flows </li></ul><ul><li>flows of finance, trade and ideas, move towards them: </li></ul>
  8. 8. The disconnected? <ul><li>Successive WTO free trade agreements = growing world trade </li></ul><ul><li>The beneficiaries of this growth have been: </li></ul><ul><li>MEDCs – who have generally maintained their share of trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Asian NICs, who have seen rapid trade growth. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, Africa and Latin America have not benefited. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Globalisation: the migration tide <ul><li>Accurate data on migration is notoriously difficult to collect, but most estimates suggest that there are, globally: </li></ul><ul><li>30-40 million illegal migrants worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees amount to 8-10 million </li></ul><ul><li>130 million economic migrants </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who is moving, and to where?
  11. 11. The Globalisation / Migration link <ul><li>THE GLOBAL SHIFT – has led to a rise in migration. </li></ul><ul><li>migration of executives and managers to new Asian economies </li></ul><ul><li>RUM to cities </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation has made MOVING EASIER because communication and transport technology are better than ever, and has created a DEMAND for migrants. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Summary: <ul><li>Globalisattion has shrunk the world; as a process it continues to increase connectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity is most intense in global hubs; many of these are megacities. </li></ul><ul><li>Megacities attract migrants, both rural-urban ones and international ones, further fuelling megacity growth </li></ul><ul><li>In turn globalization contributes to the ability of people to migrate </li></ul><ul><li>Despite globalization some people remain disconnected </li></ul>