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  • 1. Going Global Cameron Dunn Chief Examiner, Edexcel
  • 2. What is globalisation?
    • “ The growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross border transactions in goods and services, freer international capital flows , and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology ” (IMF)
  • 3. Factors
    • Internet and Satellite: financial flows, business decisions.
    • Falling cost of communication
    • Containerisation
    • Cheap air travel, and air freight
    • Cross-border road and rail networks
    • English: international language of business
    • MONEY, GOODS and PEOPLE move more easily than ever before.
  • 4. Globalisation: getting connected
    • Global networks come in a variety of forms. They can be networks of:
    • Business and Trade – physical and financial flows.
    • Communication networks – the internet
    • Transport networks – air travel, container /shipping
    • Production networks – particularly TNCs
    • Political networks – economic / trade ties
    • Demographic networks – flows of people
  • 5.
    • The map below shows internet connectivity by connection density.
    • This is related partly to population density, but also to level of development.
    • It clearly shows the global economic cores, but barely manages to trace the outline of Africa:
  • 6.
    • An easy way to find out who is connected, or not, is to examine the pattern of a major TNC.
    • Below is information for MacDonalds. Note the importance of the three global core areas, and the lack of presence in Africa.
  • 7. Global Hubs: megacities and world cities
    • ‘ cores’ with intense connectivity
    • some are World Cities such as London and Tokyo.
    • Others have special attributes
    • Many headquarter major TNCs
    • diverse populations with demographic flows
    • flows of finance, trade and ideas, move towards them:
  • 8. The disconnected?
    • Successive WTO free trade agreements = growing world trade
    • The beneficiaries of this growth have been:
    • MEDCs – who have generally maintained their share of trade.
    • Asian NICs, who have seen rapid trade growth.
    • On the other hand, Africa and Latin America have not benefited.
  • 9. Globalisation: the migration tide
    • Accurate data on migration is notoriously difficult to collect, but most estimates suggest that there are, globally:
    • 30-40 million illegal migrants worldwide
    • Refugees amount to 8-10 million
    • 130 million economic migrants
  • 10. Who is moving, and to where?
  • 11. The Globalisation / Migration link
    • THE GLOBAL SHIFT – has led to a rise in migration.
    • migration of executives and managers to new Asian economies
    • RUM to cities
    • Globalisation has made MOVING EASIER because communication and transport technology are better than ever, and has created a DEMAND for migrants.
  • 12. Summary:
    • Globalisattion has shrunk the world; as a process it continues to increase connectivity.
    • Connectivity is most intense in global hubs; many of these are megacities.
    • Megacities attract migrants, both rural-urban ones and international ones, further fuelling megacity growth
    • In turn globalization contributes to the ability of people to migrate
    • Despite globalization some people remain disconnected