“ The growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross border transactions in goods and services, freer international capital flows , and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology ” (IMF)
Internet and Satellite: financial flows, business decisions.
Falling cost of communication
Cheap air travel, and air freight
Cross-border road and rail networks
English: international language of business
MONEY, GOODS and PEOPLE move more easily than ever before.
Globalisation: getting connected
Global networks come in a variety of forms. They can be networks of:
Business and Trade – physical and financial flows.
Communication networks – the internet
Transport networks – air travel, container /shipping
Production networks – particularly TNCs
Political networks – economic / trade ties
Demographic networks – flows of people
The map below shows internet connectivity by connection density.
This is related partly to population density, but also to level of development.
It clearly shows the global economic cores, but barely manages to trace the outline of Africa:
An easy way to find out who is connected, or not, is to examine the pattern of a major TNC.
Below is information for MacDonalds. Note the importance of the three global core areas, and the lack of presence in Africa.
Global Hubs: megacities and world cities
‘ cores’ with intense connectivity
some are World Cities such as London and Tokyo.
Others have special attributes
Many headquarter major TNCs
diverse populations with demographic flows
flows of finance, trade and ideas, move towards them:
Successive WTO free trade agreements = growing world trade
The beneficiaries of this growth have been:
MEDCs – who have generally maintained their share of trade.
Asian NICs, who have seen rapid trade growth.
On the other hand, Africa and Latin America have not benefited.
Globalisation: the migration tide
Accurate data on migration is notoriously difficult to collect, but most estimates suggest that there are, globally:
30-40 million illegal migrants worldwide
Refugees amount to 8-10 million
130 million economic migrants
Who is moving, and to where?
The Globalisation / Migration link
THE GLOBAL SHIFT – has led to a rise in migration.
migration of executives and managers to new Asian economies
RUM to cities
Globalisation has made MOVING EASIER because communication and transport technology are better than ever, and has created a DEMAND for migrants.
Globalisattion has shrunk the world; as a process it continues to increase connectivity.
Connectivity is most intense in global hubs; many of these are megacities.
Megacities attract migrants, both rural-urban ones and international ones, further fuelling megacity growth
In turn globalization contributes to the ability of people to migrate
Despite globalization some people remain disconnected