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TIMING: Paper is 1¼ hours long. Your will need to plan your timing carefully – there will be lots of questions to answer. Some will be short – worth only 1 or 2 marks, some paragraph length - for 4 or 5, and the last question will be of one to 1 ½ sides and worth a lot e.g. 12 marks. Clearly it is important to get the short answers right, (the marks all add up to make your brilliant final mark!), but it is not worth spending a long time on them at the expense of the long answer. The paper is worth 60 marks (+ 3 for English etc.). So work out how much time you should spend on the last question, for 12/60 marks.
How? - allow, say, 10 mins. to look through q. paper and organise resources, and at the end to check through. This leaves you 65 minutes to earn 60 marks, i.e. just over 1 minute per mark – therefore for a 12 mark last question, you should leave about 15 minutes. (Obviously if it’s worth, say 10, adjust time) This is very important!
Housing owned either by the local authority or housing associations, which is rented out, usually to people on low incomes. Social housing An individual or a collection of individuals, living in a housing unit. Households The targeted and rapid expansion of a settlement (although they may also be built from scratch) to alleviate the pressure of overly high demand for housing in a region, especially on existing cities. New towns Urban growth, usually weakly controlled, into surrounding rural and semi-rural areas. Urban sprawl An area of open land around a city, which is protected from development. This is to stop the city spreading further. Green belt Land which has not been built on but which has been designated for development. Greenfield site A site which has been used for buildings or other development and has been left to run down/become derelict. It will need to be improved or cleared before it can be used again. Brownfield site Houses which are provided below the market price. Developers are now under obligation to build a certain number on large estates. Housing associations also offer homes on a part purchase and part rent basis for people unable to afford mortgages. Affordable housing
Other key words an organisation providing educational, creative and leisure activities for older people, including some vocational education and training programs. University of the 3rd age The buying and selling of goods and services Commerce A house in which someone lives Dwelling The term used to describe an individual or family's lifetime progress from cheaper to more expensive housing Property ladder New towns which are exemplar green developments of a minimum of 5000 homes. They will be designed to meet the highest standards of sustainability, including low and zero carbon technologies and good public transport. Eco towns
Which of the resources in the booklet relate to each of the bullet points above? Annotate your paper to show the links between these issues and the resources on the following pages. e.g figure 3, page 4
Why affordable, and why the urgency? 1.8 million 1.2 Million Dense urban housing Ecotowns are seen as a balance between the need for new houses and environmental sustainability
Why is urban sprawl needing to be prevented? e.g. Basildon. This should warn us that ecotowns may not be successful if they are built too close to existing large urban areas. They are aiming to be as self sufficient as possible.
Describe the pattern of predicted population increase Describe the pattern of predicted population density increase The two pieces of data are linked. The higher the population, the higher the density of population.
Using data from the graph, give as many reasons as possible why there the number of households has increased and is predicted to increase. Be careful reading this divided bar chart- there is bound to be a data response question on it! Can you work out the figures for each group for 2016?
Where might many of these homes be located? Why? What is the change over time? Why is the quality of social housing lower than private?
Young people find it difficult to get on the housing ladder so they start renting. Many landlords take advantage of this by purchasing apartments/ houses for rent (buy to let) Margaret Thatcher sells off a lot of the social (council) housing in the UK Market slows as affordability becomes a big issue, especially amongst first time buyers. Post- war boom in social housing e.g Dagenham
Will any of the three options help reduce the number of homeless households?
Why does London have the highest % homeless households?
Be able to compare the two sets of information using data. What impact has this had on low earners and the young wanting to buy homes?
Increase due to demand from second home owners. Note: Ecotowns will be built in rural areas Why is the property ladder so difficult to get on to?
Be able to identify trends in the data. Suggest reasons for these trends
Land which has been developed previously and
is or has been occupied by a permanent
structure. It may be in an urban or rural
setting. It does not include agricultural land,
forest or parks.
Land which has not been occupied by a permanent
structure. It usually applies to land in the
countryside but can be undeveloped land within an
No infrastructure in place. Damages environment and habitats. Difficult to get planning permission. Wide-ranging opposition. Inadequate services. Fewer job opportunities for residents. Settlements become dormitories. Clean uncontaminated land. Appealing environment. Demand for housing. Reduced development cost. ‘ Clean sheet’ for planning design. May encourage rural development.
Improved environmental and human health as areas get cleaned up. Urban revitalisation and the snowball effect. Makes efficient use of existing infrastructure. Increase the economic value of the land and increases the city’s tax base. Quality of life and housing stock can improve in neighbouring areas. Fears of liability if land not cleaned adequately. Developers find it hard to get financial backing because of the liability issue. Uncertain market value – stigma attached to brownfield sites. Developing a brownfield site is more costly and more time consuming. Lack of information about available sites.
To reduce homelessness? Especially in cities Sources of domestic Carbon emmisions?
Fill in the table to work out how sustainable each of the three options is.
Why do many people think that eco-towns will be eco-disasters? What conflict can you foresee in each of the three options? Read http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/feb/10/communities.planning
What issues does this cartoon raise?
Which of the three options do these views support or oppose?
Not in my back yard
Identify different viewpoints held by the players/stakeholders indicated in these Figs. Are they in favour of eco-towns or not? What aspect is their particular concern? - briefly summarise their viewpoint in the correct box(es) Community Aspects Brown vs Greenfield Issues Protection of wildlife & countryside Transport issues Energy Use Housing Need Vs Eco-towns In Favour of Eco-towns Aspect of concern
Using each map… Existing use Location in relation to other settlements Layout Proximity to environmentally sensitive areas Flood Risk Airports Rail Road - + Factor
Site A: Micheldever Station, Hampshire Micheldever
Largest site (520 hectares)
Greenfield site (High quality farmland)
28,000 population with 12,500 dwellings of which 5,000 affordable homes.
16,000 jobs (many working from home)
Built around existing settlement
“ The Agricultural Land Classification (ALC) provides a method for assessing the quality of farmland to enable informed choices to be made about its future use within the planning system. It helps underpin the principles of sustainable development. The ALC system classifies land into five grades, with Grade 3 subdivided into Subgrades 3a and 3b. The best and most versatile land is defined as Grades 1, 2 and 3a This is the land which is most flexible, productive and efficient.” Rare birds Affected?
Site B: Shipton, Oxfordshire Shipton
Smallest site (180 hectares)
Brownfield site (Quarry and cement works)
Extremely important for wildlife although lake will remain in plans. Fossils found here too
11, 400 population with 5,000 dwellings (1,500 affordable homes)
500 + 2000 jobs
Layout split into small areas
Brownfield site (MOD)
15,000 population with 6,000 dwellings (2,000 affordable homes)
3,000 new jobs
Housing built amongst woodland and lakes
Improved access to M40
Site C: Middle Quinton, Warwickshire
How sustainable is each option? Use the resources to rank each factor -3 to +3 TOTALS Social & cultural Housing & the built env Economy Equity Environmental Services Transport & connectivity Governance Option C Option B Option A Factor
THE LAST QUESTION: Here you have to make your decision (note title of paper!) This must be based on the evidence provided, but also on the knowledge, skills and understanding you have acquired over the course. You may well have to decide between a number of options – which do you think is the best one? In the past they have asked pupils to choose two or even to rank the options. Make sure your choice answers the question set- don’t just prepare an essay for one option! It is possible that there could be more than one suitable option; it doesn’t matter if your choice is different to someone else’s, providing that:
It ‘fits the bill’ i.e. it is a suitable choice for whatever the scheme is required to do.
You can justify your decision – can you make a good argument for this? -
Why did you choose this in preference to others?
This decision is based on the evidence in the resources
The evidence suggests that the other options are less suitable