Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management

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  • 1. The Biosphere: Coral Reefs
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • Tropical latitudes
    • Warm water >24 Degrees C)
    • Lack of seasonality
    • Less developed nations
    • Nutrient-less (clear) water
    Where are coral reefs located?
  • 8.
    • Coral is really two organisms living together and helping each other
      • Zooxanthellae (algae) make oxygen and make food for the polyp from photosynthesis. They give coral its colour.
      • Coral polyps protect the zooxanthellae, release CO 2 , and provide it with necessary nutrients from their own waste. They build up the reef by producing limestone in their skeleton.
  • 9. How Valuable Are Coral Reefs? Ecosystem goods (things that can be sold) and services (things that do a job) can be measured to show how valuable coral reefs are and help highlight why they should be protected.
  • 10. Reefs are disappearing fast
    • 11 % of world’s coral reefs had been lost by 2000
    • 6% are in excellent condition
    • 24% are in good condition,
    • 70% are in poor to fair condition
    • 32 % reefs are in a critical stage or threatened
    1995 2005 32% 24% 11% 70% 6%
  • 11. Reefs are disappearing fast
    • 11 % of world’s coral reefs had been lost by 2000
    • 6% are in excellent condition
    • 24% are in good condition,
    • 70% are in poor to fair condition
    • 32 % reefs are in a critical stage or threatened
    1995 2005
  • 12.  
  • 13.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbN161yBBGA fish market Hong Kong
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98ynSn_t3lM coral bleaching
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azmCKlmDMuo
    • Blast and cyanide fishing
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nIVvmZBpbew
    • Aquarium coral
  • 14. Fishing
  • 15. Blast Fishing
  • 16. Building
  • 17. Tourism
  • 18. Aquarium Trade
  • 19. Pollution
  • 20. Bleaching
  • 21.
    • Causes of Coral Reef Degradation in Cebu
    • Poverty
    • Overfishing
    • Blast fishing
    • Cyanide fishing
    • Tourism resort growth
    • Pollution from farming
    • Aquarium trade
  • 22.
    • Effects of Coral reef degradation in Cebu
    • Over 70% of reefs already dead
    • Coral species declining- certain species cannot tolerate siltation from resort development.
    • Reef fish at critically low levels
    • Blast and cyanide fishing increasing due to low numbers of fish
  • 23. Small Scale Management of A Coral Reef Ecosystem: Cebu Coral Farm, Philippines
  • 24.
    • The community-based 2 hectare coral farm is located in Cebu, Philippines. This farm was set up in 1997 with the following objectives:
    • to provide alternative livelihood for fisherfolk who engage in destructive fishing techniques
    • to increase coral biomass
    • to rehabilitate degraded reefs with low-cost technology
    • to strengthen the environmental awareness of the community
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27.
    • 30 families are working in the farm.
    • Two reef sites have been improved with 6,000 farm-grown coral fragments.
    • These activities generate income for fisherfolk, maintenance of the farm and for community projects which benefit the entire village people.
    • The social impacts are excellent because the locals are abandoning destructive fishing gears (dynamite- and cyanide fishing), " Yesterday we were killing undersized reef fishes to feed our families, today we grow corals and improve our reefs " said Luceno Torriefel
    • Once reefs are healthy again, fisherfolk will be able to make money from fishing sustainably (only certain fish at certain times)
    • Currently, the coral farm has 266 Coral Nursery Units (CNU's) containing approx. 22,000 fragments ready for deployment. Export of farm-grown corals could be a further option for additional income of the fisherfolk and could even pay for reef rehabilitation in the Philippines, but the national laws ban any kind of coral trade.
  • 28. Sustainability
    • Meeting the needs of today without messing up the needs of tomorrow
    • Why is this project sustainable?