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Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management
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Coral Reefs and Sustainable Management

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  • 1. The Biosphere: Coral Reefs
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7. <ul><li>Tropical latitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Warm water &gt;24 Degrees C) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of seasonality </li></ul><ul><li>Less developed nations </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient-less (clear) water </li></ul>Where are coral reefs located?
  • 8. <ul><li>Coral is really two organisms living together and helping each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zooxanthellae (algae) make oxygen and make food for the polyp from photosynthesis. They give coral its colour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral polyps protect the zooxanthellae, release CO 2 , and provide it with necessary nutrients from their own waste. They build up the reef by producing limestone in their skeleton. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. How Valuable Are Coral Reefs? Ecosystem goods (things that can be sold) and services (things that do a job) can be measured to show how valuable coral reefs are and help highlight why they should be protected.
  • 10. Reefs are disappearing fast <ul><li>11 % of world’s coral reefs had been lost by 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>6% are in excellent condition </li></ul><ul><li>24% are in good condition, </li></ul><ul><li>70% are in poor to fair condition </li></ul><ul><li>32 % reefs are in a critical stage or threatened </li></ul>1995 2005 32% 24% 11% 70% 6%
  • 11. Reefs are disappearing fast <ul><li>11 % of world’s coral reefs had been lost by 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>6% are in excellent condition </li></ul><ul><li>24% are in good condition, </li></ul><ul><li>70% are in poor to fair condition </li></ul><ul><li>32 % reefs are in a critical stage or threatened </li></ul>1995 2005
  • 12. &nbsp;
  • 13. <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbN161yBBGA fish market Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98ynSn_t3lM coral bleaching </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azmCKlmDMuo </li></ul><ul><li>Blast and cyanide fishing </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nIVvmZBpbew </li></ul><ul><li>Aquarium coral </li></ul>
  • 14. Fishing
  • 15. Blast Fishing
  • 16. Building
  • 17. Tourism
  • 18. Aquarium Trade
  • 19. Pollution
  • 20. Bleaching
  • 21. <ul><li>Causes of Coral Reef Degradation in Cebu </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Overfishing </li></ul><ul><li>Blast fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanide fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism resort growth </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution from farming </li></ul><ul><li>Aquarium trade </li></ul>
  • 22. <ul><li>Effects of Coral reef degradation in Cebu </li></ul><ul><li>Over 70% of reefs already dead </li></ul><ul><li>Coral species declining- certain species cannot tolerate siltation from resort development. </li></ul><ul><li>Reef fish at critically low levels </li></ul><ul><li>Blast and cyanide fishing increasing due to low numbers of fish </li></ul>
  • 23. Small Scale Management of A Coral Reef Ecosystem: Cebu Coral Farm, Philippines
  • 24. <ul><li>The community-based 2 hectare coral farm is located in Cebu, Philippines. This farm was set up in 1997 with the following objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>to provide alternative livelihood for fisherfolk who engage in destructive fishing techniques </li></ul><ul><li>to increase coral biomass </li></ul><ul><li>to rehabilitate degraded reefs with low-cost technology </li></ul><ul><li>to strengthen the environmental awareness of the community </li></ul>
  • 25. &nbsp;
  • 26. &nbsp;
  • 27. <ul><li>30 families are working in the farm. </li></ul><ul><li>Two reef sites have been improved with 6,000 farm-grown coral fragments. </li></ul><ul><li>These activities generate income for fisherfolk, maintenance of the farm and for community projects which benefit the entire village people. </li></ul><ul><li>The social impacts are excellent because the locals are abandoning destructive fishing gears (dynamite- and cyanide fishing), &amp;quot; Yesterday we were killing undersized reef fishes to feed our families, today we grow corals and improve our reefs &amp;quot; said Luceno Torriefel </li></ul><ul><li>Once reefs are healthy again, fisherfolk will be able to make money from fishing sustainably (only certain fish at certain times) </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, the coral farm has 266 Coral Nursery Units (CNU&apos;s) containing approx. 22,000 fragments ready for deployment. Export of farm-grown corals could be a further option for additional income of the fisherfolk and could even pay for reef rehabilitation in the Philippines, but the national laws ban any kind of coral trade. </li></ul>
  • 28. Sustainability <ul><li>Meeting the needs of today without messing up the needs of tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this project sustainable? </li></ul>

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