T&L Handbook 2009 10


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T&L Handbook 2009 10

  1. 1. Oxford School Teaching & Learning Handbook <br />762000835660 <br />1917708108955942330902970<br />Great Expectations SEAL Success-153670694055<br />Contents<br />Introduction3<br />Section A - Great Expectations4<br />Progress8<br />Dialogue10<br />Objectives13<br />Differentiation16<br />Rewards21<br />Assessment22<br />Environment25<br />Resources27<br />Engagement29<br />Plenaries32<br />Section B – Seal & Student Management35<br />Positive Learning environment tips39<br />De-escalation techniques41<br />Student Pathways42<br />Zone Progression43<br />Rewards & Consequences48<br />Introduction<br />All of us at Oxford School are striving continually to improve our teaching in order to deliver the best possible lessons for our students. This handbook has been written by different members of staff with this goal in mind and is designed to help us focus on what is needed to teach outstanding lessons. <br />The handbook is in two parts. Section A outlines our ‘Great Expectations’, a framework for good practice in teaching and learning that was put together after consultation with staff across the school. These ‘Great Expectations’ include some broad principles as well as plenty of practical strategies for use in the classroom. They build upon the good practice that already exists within the school and represent a guide to the kinds of things that we expect to see regularly in lessons. <br />Section B outlines our approach to student management. It begins with an overview of SEAL, a project that the school has recently got involved in and which will increasingly inform our approach to teaching and learning. This is followed by some practical tips for student management in the classroom and details on the ‘Four Learning Zones’.<br />The handbook is intended to be used, so try some of the ideas, keep it handy, write notes on it, discuss its contents, use it as a tool to share good practice, refer to it regularly in your planning and in faculty meetings. Above all, use it help keep the focus on the thing that matters most in schools; delivering high quality lessons for the students we teach.<br />Section A<br />Great Expectations<br />Starters<br />Starters are lively, engaging openings to lessons. Their aim is to engage all pupils in the learning and establish a sense of pace and challenge within a safe, fun, learning environment. Starters should relate to the aim of the lesson to give students a sense of direction. Starters also exploit the prime learning time at the beginning of lessons when pupils are often at their most receptive and concentration levels are high, enabling us to ‘hook the learners’. <br />Here are some ideas for starters; these have been divided into the following categories:<br />Reviewing1029970125730Tell me something - Students are given a word/topic and asked to explain what they know about the topic.Starter & Plenary Quiz - Start and finish the lessons with the same quiz so the pupils can see how they have progressed.Memory test - The pupils are provided with a list of key words – how many can they remember after 5 minutes?Just a minute - Select a pupil and they have to talk for a minute on a topic.Recap – 10 questions on previous lesson.List - List 3 things you found out/learnt last lesson (on mini whiteboard).5 to 1 - Summarise what you know about the topic in 5 bullet points - reduce to 5 words - reduce to one word.Literacy758190120650Spellings – Linked to topic.Match up - Definition of terms and key words – match them up.Hangman - Key words. Conundrums - Made up of words that are commonly misspelt.Anagrams Rephrase it – Student spend a minute or so rephrasing the aim of the lesson (presented in curriculum terminology) in their lingo. Unscramble – Students unscramble the word and write down its meaning. Q&A1028700-1285240True or False/Yes or No - Teacher or pupils ask questions that can only be answered with a true or false / yes or no.Who am I? - Teacher gives clues to a famous person, item, country etc. The pupils have to write who or what they think it is.Jeopardy - The pupil is given the answer, e.g. Paris and they have to work out the question.Just a minute – pupils talk on a topic without hesitation, repetition etcTaboo - Describe a word/character/event to a partner without saying the taboo wordsImages & props – Visual Stimuli86677541275Label the picture - Students are given a photo or picture and they need to add labels to describe the scene.Name me - Name cards to be placed next to tools/equipment/bones for practical subjects.Odd one out – pictures or words on the Smartboard.Memory game - Look at 12 items on a tray, remove tray, class asked to write down items.Link it – Student identify links and relationships between images. This also works with props. Questions – What questions come to mind when you look at this picture?Words – Think of adjectives to describe this image.Tell me more – Students identify what they want to know about a stimulus (can also be used for a short extract or statement)What’s the story? – Students identify the story behind the image. <br />During successful interactive starters:<br />students engage fully in learning from the outset and gets them in the mindset for your lesson. <br />they gain an understanding of the objectives and purposes of the lesson – creating a fluid transition to the main part of the lesson; <br />there is a sense of pace; <br />students spend most of their time on-task and focused on learning; <br />there is an appropriate level of challenge.<br />Expectations<br />High expectations are a pre-requisite for effective teaching and learning. We need to be prepared to be constantly reinforcing our expectations in terms of learning and behaviour.<br />5353050294005Classroom rules The classroom has to be an environment in which pupils are clear as to the expectations placed upon them and in which there are clear protocols for behaviour. Rules are most effective when they are negotiated between the teacher and the pupils; they need to be simple and memorable. To help support your classroom rules, ensure that you follow the school’s behaviour policy, the key principle of which is to “keep students in the learning”. <br />Do not be tempted to ignore poor behaviour and, in particular, always challenge disruptive behaviour. At the same time, you should consistently reinforce basic expectations on uniform; presentation of work and care of books/folders; students bringing the correct equipment; use of electronic devices; and eating/chewing in class. <br />Classroom routines<br />Establish classroom routines that pupils are familiar with. At the start of the lesson:<br />Have students’ books on their desks before they enter (or, if this is not possible, spread them out on a table near the door so they can collect their book easily on their way in)<br />Ensure there is an activity for the students to start as soon as they enter the room.<br />Engage the class quickly with something about today’s lesson or something positive and memorable from the last one. Use a stimulating starter.<br />Have the lesson objectives on display and clearly and quickly identify the expected learning outcomes using language the pupils can easily understand.<br />Get straight into the lesson, leaving the register and collecting of homework until later on.<br />Towards the end of the lesson:<br />End early. Leave at least 10 minutes to use as a plenary.<br />Summarise the learning.<br />Set the scene for the following lesson.<br />Have clear routines for the organised departure and have some way of saying goodbye and thanking pupils for a good lesson.<br />5143500279400BrainBookBuddyBossThroughout the lesson, you should also be as consistent as possible in following routines regarding rewards and sanctions.<br />Encouraging independence<br />Aim for students to take responsibility for their own learning. For example, encourage students finding a task difficult not to ask you (the ‘Boss’) immediately, but to think first, then look again in their textbooks/resources and then to ask their partner. <br />Progress<br />Ensuring students make enough progress in their learning is the key to good teaching; indeed, it is the whole point of teaching and learning! There are many ways to ensure students make progress (see the chapter on assessment in particular; ‘assessment for learning’ is really ‘assessment for progress’), but there are some key points to bear in mind specifically;<br /><ul><li>High expectations of what students can achieve are essential. Without them, students will not make the progress they are capable of.
  2. 2. All students need to be given frequent opportunities to demonstrate the progress they are making – not just the two or three who put their hand up the most!
  3. 3. The pace of lessons is important; without a decent pace, progress is likely to be unsatisfactory.</li></ul>Pupils should be given a sense of ownership of, and responsibility for, progress in learning. <br />It is highly desirable that students are given opportunities to become active participants in reviewing their own, and each others’, learning. Using AfL strategies, such as self and peer-assessment, will help to facilitate this.<br /><ul><li>6038215148590We need to plan for progression; for the medium and long term, but also for the short term (i.e. within a lesson). Ask yourself, ‘how can I be clear what progress has been made?’
  4. 4. Teachers must address barriers to learning that may prevent students from making progress, such as disruptive, passive behaviour or lack of confidence.</li></ul>Identification and Tracking<br /><ul><li>Teachers should familiarise themselves with relevant data as it becomes available (e.g. KS2/3, FFT data) and use this to inform expectations and monitor progress.
  5. 5. Relevant data must be shared with students. All targets and target grades should be recorded on target sheets at the front of each exercise book/folder.
  6. 6. Students should be aware of their target levels/grades, both in the short-term and for the end of the year and Key Stage.
  7. 7. Teachers’ must be aware of other factors, such as SEN, EAL and GT needs, as well as any social and emotional influences that may affect learning.</li></ul>Challenge<br /><ul><li>5029200449580All students are capable of achievement and underachievement. Identifying and challenging underachievement is the responsibility of all teachers. Teachers are here to ensure that achievement is rewarded and that nobody settles for underachievement.
  8. 8. Students need to feel challenged in lessons in order for them to feel stimulated. Teachers need to set high expectations in every lesson and continually enforce these expectations to ensure students make the maximum amount of progress.
  9. 9. Of course, too much challenge without the correct support could have a negative impact on students’ learning. However, as a general rule, it is better to start with more challenging goals and to provide appropriate support rather that starting with easy goals and trying to tack on ‘extension’ tasks at the end.
  10. 10. It is vital that students with special educational needs are not left with inappropriate tasks but, instead, complete tasks that will stimulate and challenge their learning.</li></ul>Suggestions for how to challenge<br /> students in the classroom<br />Philosophy for ChildrenThe following website has a good explanation of what this is and why it is important to use in the classroom:http://sapere.org.uk/what-is-p4c/Higher Order Questioning/Thinking SkillsUsing Bloom’s Taxonomy (or similar) to develop higher order, challenging questions for targeted students. Good for all learners but particularly for G & T students in mixed ability or broadly banded groups.Investigative ResearchBuilding in opportunities for a more investigative approach to learning. This could fit neatly into an existing scheme of work; or form the basis of an extended homework project.Expertise developmentInviting an expert/specialist to work alongside an identified group of pupils to build up an area of expertise.Actively involving students in lesson deliveryAllow different groups of students to produce a starter or plenary for specific lessons.Transition projectsForm links with our feeder primary schools and set up a transition project with Year 7 and Year 6 students.Imaginative use of resourcesStudents learn best when teaching is varied. Try to use a range of teaching models e.g. Smartboard, Clipbank, Qwizdom.Differentiation by ResourceIntroducing more sophisticated texts within the class; e.g. include A level work with your G&T Year 11 students.Assessment for LearningInclude AfL in lessons to ensure students know what they need to do in order to reach their targets.<br />Dialogue<br />Why is dialogue for learning so important?<br />Dialogue is critical to learning. <br />Communication is not merely an aid to thinking – it is tantamount to thinking itself. Students come to know more as they struggle to communicate. Talk is a powerful motivator in the learning process. <br />Dialogue is critical to Assessment for Learning<br />As well as engaging students, dialogue informs the teacher and the student of how learning is progressing and what needs to be done to accelerate and consolidate it.<br />Involve more of the students for more of the lesson<br />Many teachers believe there is lots of discussion in their lessons anyway, but research shows they usually significantly over-estimate the extent to which students are involved in any dialogue; the vast majority of talk tends to come from teachers themselves and most individual students only contribute a relatively tiny amount during the course of a lesson. It is also very clear that students do not retain a great deal of what they just hear. A far more efficient way of learning can be to get students talking to one another; as well as encouraging them to think, they are more likely to remember and understand.<br />What kinds of activities can I use?<br />There are lots of different activities that you can use to encourage dialogue in lessons. Below are a few ideas. For more information on each of these strategies, visit the section on AfL on the shared area of the school network (there are lots of ‘focus sheets’ with good ideas) and ‘The Teacher’s Toolkit’ by Paul Ginnis (every faculty has a copy of this book).<br /><ul><li>THINGS TO START OFF WITHGETTING A BIT MORE CONFIDENT?MORE ADVANCEDThink, Pair, ShareVerbal Football/TennisOne-to-oneCollective MemoryListening TriadsSnowballingCorporate responsibilityDelegationPhilosophy for Children ‘Expert’ and ‘Rainbow’ groups</li></ul>Tips for successful dialogue<br /><ul><li>If you talk to students about WHY you are asking them to talk to each other (e.g. “research shows it helps you develop your thinking”) they will value the activity more highly and take it more seriously. Don’t let students think that dialogue is not ‘work’; writing is not the only legitimate way to learn!
  11. 11. Establish ‘talk rules’. These might be negotiated with a class. Examples include; we talk one at a time; we respect each other’s opinions; we give reasons for our ideas; if we disagree we ask “why?”
  12. 12. If you use mini whiteboards, try giving one between two – it forces students to talk/debate.
  13. 13. Be clear in your own mind what you want students to get out of their discussion – and ensure they understand the success criteria.
  14. 14. Carefully plan who will talk to who – different groupings may work better for different tasks.
  15. 15. Give formative feedback on the WAY students talked with each other as well as on the task itself. E.g; “Well done for spending the whole time talking about the task”; “ I liked the way you asked each other questions”; “Next time try to ask your partner to help you check out your idea instead of asking me.”
  16. 16. There may well be discussions between teacher and student that are not planned and these are important. However, a great deal of dialogue must be planned and prepared for. It is essential to structure tasks carefully for students. A vague instruction to “have a chat about this for a few minutes” will lead to chaos. Explicit structures for groups, talk rules and careful timings are essential.
  17. 17. Above all, be patient. Remember it will take time to develop high quality dialogue in your classroom. Students are not always used to doing a great deal of it and need teaching, just as you will need practice at using some of the different strategies.</li></ul>Philosophy for Children (P4C)<br />If you haven’t come across P4C, or used it yet, then try! It can be an incredibly powerful tool for developing high quality dialogue for students of all ages and abilities and is really not as difficult to manage as it might at first sound. <br />The following websites contain excellent material about Philosophy for Children;<br />www.thinkingscripts.co.uk<br />http://www.sapere.org.uk/<br />http://www.thinkingeducation.co.uk/p4c.htm<br /><ul><li> </li></ul>Questioning<br />Questioning is a key way in which dialogue can be used within the classroom. However, while most teachers do ask lots of questions and students give lots of answers, the quality of both these questions and answers is far more variable. Below are some ideas for increasing the level and quality of dialogue in the classroom through effective questioning:<br />ASKING QUESTIONSUse a range of types of questions to target students at different levels.Use open questions that welcome a range of possible answers to encourage students to contribute.Tell students how you want them to answer before you ask the question.Use big, rich questions that require higher order thinking skills (e.g. summarise, evaluate, analyse) to encourage more extended answers.<br />Use paired discussion. Ask your question, then give students time to discuss their ideas in pairs. You can ask them to share ideas with another pair before asking for plenary contributions.Use mini whiteboards to ensure every student is engaged (AND they give you the chance to do some assessment you can use right away).Get all students to answer at once eg “I’ll count to three then I want you all to shout out the answer” or “Show me true or false” or “Point this way to answer X and that way for Y” etc…Increase wait time after asking a question to at least five seconds and up to several minutes (we often wait less than one second).ENCOURAGING ANSWERS<br />Give immediate formative feedback that encourages dialogue. For example, “That was an interesting answer because…. I especially liked the way you…….”Look for something in the answer that you can use to move the discussion on rather than waiting for the “right” answer. If an answer is way off, invite others to help.RESPONDING TO ANSWERS<br />5292725280670Objectives<br /> and Success Criteria<br />Designing high quality lesson objectives is one of the most important elements in planning a good lesson and any successful lesson will be driven by these objectives. The diagram below suggests why objective-led lessons are so important.<br />Clear learning objectivesMean students understand what they are learning / what they are trying to achieveHelp maintain focus in a lesson (e.g. in questioning)Focus assessment and feedbackSupport effective plenariesHelp teachers identify the most effective activitiesMORE LEARNING<br />Lesson objectives should be shared with students in each lesson. Ideally they will be written on the board and explained orally. It is essential that lesson objectives are:<br />Made visual<br />In ‘pupil-friendly’ language<br />Explained fully to the pupils<br />Relevant to your starter<br />Referred to regularly throughout the lesson<br />Reviewed in your plenary <br />Ideally, if an observer asked students in your class, they would be able to explain what they are trying to learn and why. Your questioning and explanations will be focussed on the learning objectives of the lesson and the activities you set will all help students to meet the objectives.<br />Objectives vs Outcomes<br />In planning lessons, we should consider the distinction between:<br /><ul><li>Lesson objectives (What will the students be learning?)
  18. 18. Lesson outcomes (What will the students be doing? How will achievement be demonstrated by the students?)</li></ul>N.B. When considering the difference between objectives and outcomes, some teachers find it helpful to think in terms of WALT (We Are Learning To...) and WILF (What I am Looking For...)<br />In planning, teachers should decide what they intend the students to learn and then plan the activities that will support this learning. They should then review the learning outcomes to assess learning versus the learning objectives.<br />Objectives<br />When setting objectives, it is important that there is a clear distinction between what students will do in the lesson and what they will learn. Beginning a learning objective with the words “To be able to…” is a simple and effective way of ensuring your objective really is a learning objective and not a description of the activity. If you cannot use “To be able to…” the following stems may be helpful:<br />By the end of the lesson students will:<br />know that … (knowledge: factual information, e.g. names, places, symbols formulae, events)<br />develop / be able to … (skills: using knowledge, applying techniques, analysing information, etc.)<br />understand how / why … (understanding: concepts, reasons, effects, principles, processes, etc.)<br />develop / be aware of … (attitudes and values: empathy, caring, sensitivity towards social issues, feelings, moral issues, etc.)<br />Learning objectives may also focus on how pupils learn (e.g. ‘to appreciate how peer assessment can help you to improve your own work’).<br />When setting objectives, consider the level of challenge they contain and try to avoid too many lessons being purely focussed on learning facts. Bloom’s Taxonomy can be a useful tool when thinking about how to introduce a greater level of challenge into lesson objectives. Ideally, we should be aiming to set objectives towards the top of the scale as often as possible.<br />133350167005<br />41275080010<br />Learning Outcomes (or Success Criteria)<br />Objectives will need to be linked to outcomes (i.e. success criteria) so that students can demonstrate they have met the objectives set out by the teacher. Building appropriate success criteria into short-term planning is vital to ensure a focus on learning as opposed to activities. When planning, ask yourself;<br /><ul><li>What will my students have learned and what will they be able to do at the end of the lesson that they could not do before?
  19. 19. How will they demonstrate that they have met the objectives?
  20. 20. How can I make it clear to students what good quality work will look like (and avoid simply focussing on task completion)?</li></ul>Wherever possible, it is a good ideas to include differentiated learning outcomes. For example:<br />By the end of the lesson all of you will be able to …….<br />By the end of the lesson most of you will be able to …….<br />By the end of the lesson some of you will be able to ……<br />Throughout the lesson, success criteria should be shared with students so that they always know what they need to do in order to demonstrate success. Success criteria should:<br />be based on the objectives <br />shape the teaching and modelling and provide the students’ focus while they are working <br />provide the key focus for all feedback and assessment<br />Displaying success criteria can provide a visual prompt for students and teachers during the course of the lesson or sequence of lessons. <br />It can also be very useful to involve students in setting the success criteria. For example, ask the students ‘what will you need to do to demonstrate to me that you have met the objectives for this task/lesson?’<br />Differentiation<br />Differentiation means recognising that each learner in a class differs from other learners in many ways. Taking this into account, we should plan our lessons so that all learners have the best chance of achieving the learning objectives. It should be far more than simply preparing ‘help sheets’ for the lower attainers and ‘extension sheets’ for the higher attainers. All of us learn in different ways, and have different starting points, and these need to be taken into account when planning.<br />The diagram below illustrates just some of the different factors we need to take into account when considering differentiation.<br />We are all individuals!Prior knowledge & experienceCultural ExpectationsLanguageLearning Support NeedsG&TMotivationLiteracy levelsNumeracy levelsPreference for group or individual workICT levelsPreferred Learning StyleWe all are all individuals!<br />Learning Styles<br />A great deal of research has been carried out into the notion that we all have our own fixed, ‘preferred learning style’ and there are countless different models of available for categorising different learning styles. There are many dangers with following any of these models too closely, not least the problem of pigeon-holing students into one, overly simplistic ‘learning style’. However, there are some very important points to come out of the research into learning styles that we should all bear in mind when planning and teaching;<br /><ul><li>There is no question that we all have different strengths and weaknesses as learners. For example, some people do tend to learn better with visual stimuli, whereas others prefer to discuss things. Similarly, some prefer very structured, ‘step-by-step’ tasks whereas others learn more effectively when the tasks are more open-ended.
  21. 21. Taking this into account, teachers need to use a wide variety of teaching and learning strategies. This need not necessarily be within every lesson, but should certainly apply across any series of lessons.
  22. 22. Awareness of different learning styles allows teachers to discuss the learning process with students. This is very powerful in helping students to see that learning is not something that is ‘done to them’ but is an active process that requires their involvement. It also helps them to develop their own best ways of learning.</li></ul>Consider the following statistics;<br /><ul><li>29% of the population tend to learn best by storing images in their brain
  23. 23. 34% learn best by storing sounds
  24. 24. 37% prefer to learn by movement or touch</li></ul>If this is the case (or even roughly the case), then why is it that so many of our lessons still largely follow the ‘standard’ format of teacher talk, followed by individual written tasks, followed by some more teacher talk? This traditional model is simply not the most efficient way of learning for the majority of people (though it probably worked well enough for most teachers when we were at school).<br />The most well-known model for learning styles is ‘VAK’. While we should avoid pigeon-holing students as simply ‘visual’ or ‘auditory’ or ‘kinaesthetic’ learners, VAK can be a very useful tool for helping ensure that we do include sufficient variety within our lessons. Bear in mind that a very large proportion of people will generally learn best through kinaesthetic activities – yet these are still comparatively rare in most lessons. The table below outlines some examples of simple activities that help to address the different learning styles within VAK.<br />20320-457200-14954254445-14954254445PhotosMind mapsDiagramsPicturesFilm clips, Wall displays Story-tellingTalkingQuestioning Problem solvingPaired and group discussionMusicSinging. MovementRole playArtefactsUse the environment Group work<br />How can we differentiate in practice?<br />There are obviously no easy solutions to ‘perfect’ differentiation. However, the following principles might help;<br /><ul><li>Tasks can be differentiated in different ways. For example, by; learning outcomes; task/activity; teaching method; resources; student groupings; assessment; learning support; or by time allowed to complete task.
  25. 25. Assessment for Learning is vital. AfL strategies help make sure that teachers know their students as well as they can and they also ensure students have a clear understanding of their own learning and targets. Without AfL, differentiation is impossible because we cannot know what kind of differentiation is needed.
  26. 26. 445897010160Using a wide variety of teaching styles will help motivate learners and meet the wide range of learner needs.
  27. 27. When setting objectives, consider all the students in the class; at its simplest level, this can mean the ‘All/Most/Some…’ or ‘Must/Should/Could…’ format (see section on Objectives).
  28. 28. Talk to students about how they are learning, as well as what they are learning. For example, in plenaries, ask students what helped them learn best in the lesson. As students build up a better understanding of their own learning preferences, their learning should become more efficient.</li></ul>Teaching and learning activities may include:<br />Use of learning resources at more than one level of difficulty. <br />Mixed ability group work where more confident learners can provide peer support to fellow learners.<br />Group work at different levels where activities are simplified (e.g. in terms of language or content) for some groups and extended for others. <br />Tasks where some learners are given more support than others. For example, different levels of scaffolding can be provided for written work. <br />‘Discovery learning’ or personal research where learners can learn more at their own pace. <br />Additional learning support for individuals or small groups. <br />Careful, ‘no hands up’ questioning where different questions are directed at individuals depending on their particular strengths and weaknesses<br />Differentiating for SEN Students*<br />The table below offers some tips from the SEN department for differentiation for teaching SEN students. It is based on the ‘LEARN’ model. Note that many of these tips apply to all students, regardless of whether they are on the SEN register or not. <br />Learning stylesEnsure that you address a range of learning styles within lessons in order to better motivate students and give them the best chance of success.Enlarge textWhen creating worksheets use; 14 or 16 font and Arial or Comic Sans fonts Pale yellow or pale green paperHighlighted or underlined key wordsClear spacing and keep large chunks of text to a minimum. Use the same principles when preparing PowerPoints and using whiteboards. Also, remember to use writing frames and scaffolding techniques.AfL Use a range of AfL strategies to ensure learners have a clear understanding of their levels and targets. Ensure that students are given short achievable tasks and regular, constructive and positive feedback. Peer support and assessment is essential, so think carefully about classroom organisation. Reading agesUse reading ages, SEN, EAL and G&T data to inform your planning. It is essential you know your students’ needs. Consult SEN information and individual Pupil Profiles in order to give you useful strategies to support your students. Use HLTAs and TAs to help you devise differentiated tasks. Never assumeEnsure you regularly check understanding of key vocabulary, concepts, tasks, homework and that students know what they need to do to improve. Never be afraid to revisit work. Ensure tasks are accurately tailored to the learning levels of the individual students within the class. Remember – ‘One size does not fit all!’ <br />Differentiating for EAL Students*<br />Ten Top Tips for EAL Students (from the EAL department)<br />LESSON OBJECTIVES: Keep the wording of the objectives as simple as possible.<br />THE BOTTOM LINE: What is the really crucial bit of your lesson that students can’t afford to miss? How can you get this across? Can you let other areas of the lesson go?<br />VISUALS: Consider your lesson materials. Can you use pictures/maps/diagrams to get key points across? Can you demonstrate rather than describe? <br />KEY WORDS: Make a short list of key words for your lesson. Have them on display. Let your EAL TA know what they are in advance.<br />SIMPLE TEXT: Keep information-giving text (e.g. text displayed on whiteboards and displays) as simple as possible. Read it through before the lesson. Could you use simpler words and shorter sentences?<br />PAIRS: try pairing students with the same first language together. Ask them to explain difficult points and share use of dictionaries.<br />REPEATING: Ask English speakers to paraphrase or summarise key points to the class, giving students with little English another chance to understand. <br />SAMPLE WORK: Show a sample of what a successfully completed task should look like. Students with limited English then know what they are trying to achieve.<br />FIRST LANGUAGE: Consider asking students to do writing/response tasks in their first language. It will give them confidence, and you will get an idea of how much they can understand in general. They or another student can translate afterwards. <br />HOMEWORK: Set homework, but make it achievable. If the rest of the class has a writing task, can the EAL student produce a picture or a list of key words instead?<br />Differentiating for Gifted and Talented Students*<br /><ul><li>Ten Top Tips for G&T Students (from the G&T Co-ordinator)</li></ul>The lower levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy will usually be far easier for G&T students – make sure you are using higher level questions, tasks and lesson objectives (evaluation, synthesis and analysis)<br /><ul><li>Negotiated objectives – different ones for G&T students, discussed with them
  29. 29. Peer and self assessment are particularly useful for G&T students</li></ul>Jump steps on worksheet and go straight to the more challenging work<br />Open-ended writing tasks – writing frames can be unnecessarily restrictive<br />Restrict time or give a word limit (fewer words for a more able student)<br />Get the students to make a starter for the next lesson or a plenary for the current one<br />Have a ‘challenge box’ of interesting and varied extension tasks – lucky dip<br />Give them the chance to challenge or question established theories – what theory would they have come up with? <br />Construct a key word list for the topic – with a word limit and justification of choice <br />* There is plenty of extra information to help with the teaching of SEN, G&T and EAL students on the staff shared area. And don’t forget to ask experts in school, such as the SEN and EAL departments and cross-curricular co-ordinators.<br />Rewards<br />It has long been established that rewards are more effective than punishments in motivating pupils. By praising and rewarding positive behaviour, others will be encouraged to act similarly. Focussing on the positive also makes the job of teaching a lot more enjoyable! Consider the following points;<br />Aim for at least four positive comments for every negative one<br />Use the school rewards system<br />Pupils are particularly sensitive to inconsistent use of praise: aim to strike a balance between rewarding consistently good behaviour and rewarding improved behaviour.<br />Aim for meaningful praise, rather than praise just for the sake of it. Clear success criteria for lessons/activities can really help here.<br />Remember that positive feedback can often improve relationships with parents as well, especially if there has been negative feedback about their child in the past.<br />Consider the following suggestions for rewards:<br />-806450-10160MeritsPostcards-62865064770Ask yourself – would the pupil in question prefer public praise or a quiet word?68580-17780Let Achievement Co-ordinators and tutors know about students’ successes so they can pass on their congratulations.-61150545085Postive phone call or letter home.-4635545085Use successful work by students in your classroom displays.-67945095885Subject-specific merit stickers.-76835057150Use the Newsletter to broadcast successes and achievements.-69088065405Buy treats for groups: e.g. chocolates/sweets.-80645070485Always give a positive comment first, whether verbally or written in exercise books.-71755038735Competitions, with prizes awarded for best two or three students.-65405070485Smiley faces in mark book = seal of approval.-57785045085Thumbs up, high five, or even just a smile.4:1 In teacher-talk, aim to give at least 4 positive comments to every negative one-641350-4445Peer-assessment can be a particularly effective source of praise.<br />5579745-42545Assessment<br />Formative Assessment (Assessment for Learning)<br />Formative assessment involves students constantly asking themselves three questions; <br />Where am I now?What can pupils already do?Strategies include:Making a starter activity out of re-capping recent work.Ensuring that pupils know exactly what the description of level they are working at is.Having a visually stimulating set of pupil-friendly grade and level descriptors that pupils can highlight when they meet a criterion.Using homework from previous lesson as a starterReferring to objectives and signs of success throughout lessons.Where am I going?What should pupils aim to do?Strategies include:Devising short term plans that are clearly aimed at progression.Sharing clear, achievable, pupil-friendly objectives.Sharing signs of success, eg. ‘What I’m looking for…’Ensuring that pupils know what a pupil at their target level can do.Allowing suitable pupils to select which specific aspect of criteria to focus on for that lesson.Using visually attractive, interactive, pupil-friendly grade and level descriptors for pupils to see their next challenge.Making sure that the classroom ethos encourages all pupils to want to see a way forward in their learning.Planning inclusive lessons in which pupils of all abilities feel that their working level can be improved upon.Establishing a sense of progression early on in the academic year.How do I get there?How do pupils become able to do it?Strategies include:Establishing that pupils understand what to do.‘Walking through’ and modelling examples to ensure understanding.Asking pupils to explain steps to success to each other.Breaking target level descriptors down into small, relevant chunks, related to lesson objectives.Giving pupils ownership and responsibility for progress through specific, objective-guided, criteria-based self-assessment.Utilising pupils through specific, objective-related, criteria-based, peer-assessment.Self, peer and teacher target setting.Using ‘traffic-lights’ or ‘thumbs-up’ to establish confident, unsure and struggling pupils.Asking pupils if they have produced signs of success and how they did it.Sharing exemplary work and explanations of how it was achieved from more able pupils part way through lesson.<br />5881370-132080Assessment for Learning...<br />‘is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning where they need to go and how best to get there.’<br />MethodExamples of AfL teaching strategies in lessonSharing learning objectives with pupilsShare learning objectives at the beginning of the lesson and, where appropriate, during the lesson in language that pupils can understand.Use these objectives as the basis for questioning and feedback during plenaries.Helping pupils to know and recognise the standards they are aiming forShow pupils’ work that has met criteria and reasons why.Give pupils clear success criteria then relate them to the learning objectives.Model what it should look like. Ensure that there are clear, shared expectations about the presentation of work.Provide examples of pupils’ work, which shows work in progress as well as the finished product.Involving pupils in peer and self-assessmentGive pupils opportunities to talk about what they have learned and what they have found difficultEncourage pupils to discuss together how they could improve.Ask pupils to explain their thinking: ‘How did you get that answer?’Give time for pupils to reflect upon their learning.Identify with pupils the next steps in learning.Coloured pens for self-assessment. Another different coloured pen for peer-assessment.Pupils to act as the teacher and set SMART targets during peer-assessment.Two heads over one book for combined self- and peer-assessment. This can lead to discussion about successful pieces of work.Ask the question: ‘What’s hot and what’s not?’ about a friend’s work. The critical friend is more powerful than a teacher who is simply perceived as being a nag, especially to competitive boys. Providing feedback that leads to pupils recognising their next steps and how to take themEnsure feedback is constructive as well as positive, identifying what the pupil has done well, what needs to be done to improve, and how to do it.Setting ‘small steps’ targets for improvement as sticky labels on the front of exercise books for easy reference by pupils and teachers. They should indicate problem in the work itself and match with a target at the end of the piece of work – linked to objectives and criteria for that piece of work.Oral feedback for practical lessons. Repetition, eg. ‘Billy, can you remember what you said that Joe had to do to improve his performance when he tried this last week?’Promoting confidence that every pupil can improveIdentify small steps to enable pupils to see their progress, thus building confidence and self-esteem.Encourage pupils to explain their thinking and reasoning within a secure classroom ethos.Involving both teacher and pupil in reviewing and reflecting on assessment informationProvide time for pupils to reflect upon what they have learned and understood and to identify where they still have difficulties.Maintain continuous dialogue about progress being made.Choose appropriate tasks to provide quality assessment information.Adjust planning; evaluate effectiveness of task, resources, etc as a result of assessment. Highlight a target that is met and reward or a target that is not met and write ‘ongoing’ next to it. Point it out to the pupil as an area of need.<br />513461031750Summative Assessment<br /><ul><li>The assessment of learning is usually called summative assessment. </li></ul>This usually takes place at the end of a unit or Key Stage. This is undertaken to see what a student has learned and is most typically assessed as a grade or level. <br />This data may be used to set future student targets and help teachers/departments review the success of different teaching and learning approaches in maximising pupil progress.<br /><ul><li>Even summative assessments can be used to support assessment for learning. For example, teachers can share mark schemes and success criteria with students and ask students to reflect on how they could improve answers.
  30. 30. Peer and self assessment techniques can be used to review the outcome of summative assessments using these mark schemes and success criteria. Students can set themselves learning targets and prioritise areas on which they need to focus.</li></ul>Oral feedback<br />494347520955Oral feedback is the most regular and interactive form of assessment and feedback. <br />Oral assessment feedback can be direct (targeted to individuals or groups) and indirect (others listen and reflect on what has been said). <br />Sometimes it will be spontaneous and at other times it should be planned. <br />It should always aim to support student learning – that is, it will specifically say what is good / right about the student’s answer or work and will explain how they can make progress against the learning objective.<br />Peer and self assessment<br /><ul><li>4728210114935It takes time, patience and commitment to develop peer and self assessment but the rewards in terms of student learning are well worth the effort.
  31. 31. It is best to start by introducing peer assessment. Students will learn the skills they need for self assessment from this.
  32. 32. In order to assess their own work or the work of others students need to be clear about the learning objectives and what the success criteria are.
  33. 33. They will need to be trained to collaborate to assess each others’ work. They will need time to reflect on their learning and support in identifying next steps.
  34. 34. In order to be effective, peer and self assessment need to be regular activities in lessons.</li></ul>5343525104775<br />Homework<br /><ul><li>Learning at home is an essential part of a good education.
  35. 35. Regular and meaningful homework is important as it gives pupils the opportunity to practice at home the tasks covered in class and helps the pupils work towards improving important skills, including becoming more independent in their learning.
  36. 36. It also forms an important component of a teacher’s range of assessment strategies.</li></ul>-236131-1169585718101-233916 Environment<br />The way in which teachers manage the classroom will have a significant effect on students’ learning and behaviour. Students learn and progress in a structured and stimulating environment.<br />Building Relationships<br />2527301116330Every student should be made to feel included in the lesson; try to eliminate learning barriers. Show them you’re human, why you love your subject, why it’s important that they study it. A good teacher has honest confidence – they recognise their own frailties as well as talents and accommodate both. Be personable; use humour and praise whenever possible.<br />Perhaps the best way of all to build constructive relationships with students is for them to experience the confidence and sense of achievement that comes from making tangible progress in their learning. If students feel they are learning well in our lessons, then they are more likely to trust us and to respond well to us. Assessment for Learning strategies are the most effective way of making this happen.<br />5838825317500The Physical Environment<br />Students will immediately be affected by the physical environment of a classroom. Positivity from students for the lesson will be encouraged by a tidy classroom with up to date and stimulating displays. Plants and classical music can also be used to promote a calm and pleasant atmosphere. Ensure any graffiti is removed immediately or other students will quickly add to it. The ideal would be to have a variety of displays which are regularly changed. Some ideas are listed below; these can be permanent displays or a wall of large frames in which the successful pieces created in each lesson can be placed. <br />Displays for Expectations and ProtocolsDisplays for LearningDisplays for Community and BelongingSchool behavioural planRewardsSanctionsHealth and safety information.Key wordsKey questionsExemplar answersTraffic lightsCourse overviewsLevel descriptorsFact (or thought) for the dayAdverts for events and exhibitionsNews articlesPhotographs and names of class members (maybe even a self portrait or ‘day in a life’), Certificates of achievementStudent of the lessonAdverts for trips, clubs, or activities such as student forumMerit charts<br />5838825119380Furniture<br />The arrangements of chairs and tables should reflect and support the way you want pupils to learn. Consider using a double horseshoe layout; this is considered to be one of the best layouts to enable all pupils to focus on the front of the room but it can also offer options for changing pairings in group work.<br />Safety<br />-2348060901Ensure you are familiar with the safety policies featured in the staff handbook and the procedures for fire and other emergencies. Email any concerns about health and safety, particularly broken equipment or fittings, to the site manager as soon as possible. If any new electronic equipment is acquired it will need to be PAT tested. If you are staying late or visiting during the weekend the duty caretaker needs to be aware of your presence so please sign in at reception. Secure all doors and windows and lock away any valuable or potentially hazardous items when you are not using your classroom.<br />Resources<br />V<br />of resources andof teaching strategiesof learners.Using aemploying awill help you to engage aA<br />R<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />Try using this checklist when planning your lessons throughout the year:<br />Use of Teaching Assistants<br />TAs can be the most effective resource available to teachers, yet they are often under-used. Consider the following ways of maximising their impact;<br />Provide TAs with copies of the scheme of work, lesson plans, curricular targets and any differentiated outcomes<br />Directly involve TAs in planning lessons and in any adaptations to, or production of additional materials required for specific groups or individuals<br />Brief TAs about their role in the lesson, being clear about lesson objectives and learning outcomes and how they can support students in making progress<br />Be clear about who the TA will primarily working with; is it one particular individual, or group or students or would it be more beneficial for the TA to circulate more widely?<br />Make sure that certain students do not become over-reliant on the TA and therefore become excluded from certain classroom activities; the TA should not take responsibility for students’ work, but instead reinforces learning in the lesson and encourages independence<br />ICT Resources<br />PowerPoint, to deliver visual as well as written material<br />Internet: pictures, web-cams, teaching games. Try using a hyperlink to a relevant website on a PowerPoint<br />Boardworks: get students using the whiteboard<br />SAM learning<br />Clipbank<br />Podcasts<br />Audio/Visual/Kinaesthetic<br />Video with related question sheet<br />Music/songs relevant to a topic (e.g. poem set to music; song from a different culture)<br />Audio tapes for listening<br />Objects to be handled and discussed<br />Paintings, models or sculptures relevant to the topic, used to provoke discussion<br />Cartoons<br />Dramatic: role-plays, improvisations, hot-seating, scripted dramas, news reports<br />Beyond the boring worksheet<br />Booklet anthology or compilation of texts/data for students to explore independently<br />Note-taking frames<br />Writing frames<br />Crosswords<br />Cloze (fill in the missing words)<br />Students fill in a wordsearch whilst listening to a text<br />Printed resources<br />Revision booklets<br />Book box from the library<br />Encyclopaedias/ dictionaries<br />Newspaper and magazine clippings<br />Students as resources<br />Giving demonstrations<br />Students teaching a starter/activity/whole lesson<br />Student presentations<br />Students draw and discuss<br />Student visitor (e.g. 6th Form visiting Year 7)<br />Engagement<br />Students learn in different ways. Recognising this and planning for it provides stimulus and is inclusive. The aim should be for the students to have a more active role in the lesson and for teachers to take a step back and act as facilitators to aid the students’ learning….this could mean your role changes and you actually become busier than usual (but in a more positive, and hopefully rewarding way). The overall aim is to gain more involvement by everyone. Of course, this can only happen if you establish good relationships with all pupils (see ‘Environment’ section).<br />Activities<br />The activities you do depend on the topic being taught but most lessons should contain a variety of activities. A range of teacher led and student centred activities should be used. Interactive starter activities are the easiest and simplest way to ensure participation- they may need careful management to ensure all are involved, e.g. quizzes, games, picture to stimulate discussion.<br />5030470-7620Be prepared to take risks. Go for tasks that are student led or try a whole class game where they decide groupings. Remember, these can be a steep learning curve for all involved and there should not be such a thing as a failed lesson- everyone should learn something (even you!). <br />Try to include thinking skills and Assessment for Learning. Use brain gym activities and/or breaks to allow students opportunities to refresh concentration levels<br />Above all: never take the motivation of your students for granted. If they are not engaged, ask yourself ‘what could I do differently?’<br />Encouraging participation<br />Even if students are interested in the subject, it can sometimes be difficult to get everyone to contribute within a lesson. Likewise some classes can become dominated by a small group of more confident individuals. Here are some ideas to encourage participation from all:<br />DiscussionsUse ‘comment cards’ which students hand in when they make a contribution, they have to ‘spend’ all their cards by the end of the sessionSnowballingJigsaw groupsQuizzesTraffic lights for true/falseUse methods such as P4C to teach the group to listen and discussRole playsAs a class, establish guidelines of what makes a productive and inclusive discussion. Use this to highlight the importance of discussion skills.Practical activities Think /pair /share32893024130TablesCut & pasteRadio showsUse a random name generator or pick names out of a hatIndependent researchPresentations27368561595Let students write down their thoughts before you ask them to speak up.267970250190Group work234950250190 Card sorts209550264795Team competitionsAcknowledge those who do contribute so that they feel comfortable, encouraged and valued. Reward them with verbal praise, merits or tickets in a prize drawMind mapsLet a student lead the discussion<br />Enthusiasm<br />Pupils work best when they are interested, involved and appropriately challenged by their work – when their teacher is enthusiastic about their subject, the students will be as well.<br />Enthusiasm is linked to the teacher when he/she has………<br />Pride Motivation A Positive Passion Environment<br />……….for their subject and their pupils.<br />Students like to feel and see:<br />Up to date displays, including their own work <br />Enthusiasm for them and their work, make sure they know<br />A smile when first greeted and early, positive engagement<br />Interest in what they have to say <br />When pupils are enthusiastic learners they:<br />have a longer concentration span;<br />complete work on time <br />stay on-task and have few behavioural problems;<br />maintain a good attendance record.<br />Consequently, they:<br />develop higher self-esteem;<br />make faster progress;<br />develop a belief in their ability to improve and learn;<br />encourage and work well with other pupils.<br />395287546355Use the following aspects to portray passion for your subject; <br /><ul><li>Vocalization
  37. 37. Eye contact
  38. 38. Gestures
  39. 39. Movement
  40. 40. Facial expressions </li></ul>Positivity needs to begin right at the start of a lesson. Be at the door to greet students as they arrive; be welcoming and smile at all of them, even those you regard as difficult or uncooperative. Do not start a lesson by reminding students what they got wrong last lesson; treat every one as a fresh start. <br />If you are enthusiastic, your students will be enthusiastic.<br />Plenaries<br />Providing students with regular opportunities for reflection on what they are learning, and how they are learning, is vital. In an effective lesson, there will nearly always be a substantial plenary at the end, but there are also likely to be several ‘mini-plenaries’ throughout the lesson, where progress is reviewed and students are encouraged to reflect. Without these opportunities, learning is far more likely to remain shallow and inconsistent.<br />Effective Plenaries<br />Are related to clear learning objectives<br />Allow the pupil to sum up their learning rather than the teacher<br />Enable the teacher to assess learning and plan accordingly (both within lessons and between lessons)          <br />Make links between past, present and future learning<br />Will happen during the lesson to review progress as well as at the end of the lesson<br />Deal with misconceptions<br />Highlight and celebrate success and progress <br />Help build a sense of momentum and direction<br />Help pupils understand and remember what has been learnt             <br />Take learning further and deeper          <br />Instil a habit of reflection on learning<br />Do not have to involve the whole class: e.g. use jigsaw or rainbow groups instead             <br />Here are some ideas for plenaries, divided into different categories:<br />Reviewing2209800-1153160Just-a-minute – sum up all that you have learnt in 60 seconds, without hesitation, deviation or repetition…5 - Write 5 bullet points to sum up today’s learning.5 Rules - Write 5 golden rules or tips for …Quick fire - Quiz to check understanding.3 - List three things you have learnt today.Presentations – groups of students give short presentations on aspects of the lesson objectives.118046590170 LiteracyAnagram - Identify the key points of the lesson from this anagram.Wordsearch - Using key vocabulary / concepts.Cloze - Activity to identify missing key words.Define - Write dictionary definitions of new key vocabulary.Create a mnemonic.Word Association - A game where pupils say a word connected with the topic studied. The next person has to reply with another word.Q&A754380160020True or false questions.Who knows goes – pupils have to answer a question correctly before they sit down.Plenary first - Put the plenary questions on the board at the start of the lesson.Hot seating - With 1 member of the class; everyone else has to think of questions to ask them.Images73469572390Quick Draw - A picture to sum up what you have learnt today.Label - A photo, drawing, illustration, cartoon etc. using key words.Graphic– draw a flow diagram to sum up your learning.Pictionary – students draw pictures on board for rest of class/teams to work out Problem Solving80137019685Predict - what will happen next lesson?3 - Give 3 examples of how you can apply learnt skills in another lesson.Order - In pairs, put the following points in order of importance. Justify your order.Ask a student to solve a problem on the board.Assessment for Learning73469581915Discuss and then list 3 things your neighbour has learnt.Your targets - Set yourself targets for next lesson.Their targets - Set targets for your neighbour.Ask students to share good points from their partner’s work with the class – related to success criteria<br />It is not easy to deliver an excellent plenary. The following table outlines some of the most common hazards when it comes to plenaries and offers some suggested solutions…<br />HazardSuggested SolutionsTime runs too short.Use a pupil as timekeeper.Plan specific times for the sections of the lesson and stick to them.Plan the plenary properly: you are less likely to neglect it.‘Plenary’ just becomes business – getting back in seats, collecting in materials, setting homework and/or repeating the objectives.Change your routine to distinguish very clearly between the plenary and the ‘end of lesson’.Go for novel plenaries which re-engage attention.Set homework at the beginning of the lesson.Plenaries grown dull because it’s always the same routine.Plan varied styles of plenary.Design each plenary to suit the lesson and its objective.Sometimes use the plenary to whet pupils’ appetites for the next lesson.‘Show and tell’ sessions result in low-level exchanges. Be explicit and demanding, sharing the success criteria for high-quality feedback.Use probing questioning.Require justification.Place emphasis on the new skills and knowledge that have been acquired.The teacher does the activities and the underlying thinking instead of the pupils.Involve pupils in delivering the plenary: e.g. require them to do the questioningResist the temptation to answer questions as well as ask them.Ensure that pupils are primed and have thinking time to prepare properly.The learning remains implicit and it is difficult to demonstrate progress.Always ask “What have we learned in today’s lesson?”List the explicit learning points in your planning.Ask pupils to articulate the main things that helped to achieve the objectives.Use no-hands questioning to show all students have made progressThe teacher simply repeats everything; nothing is gained by students.Quickly recap key points yourself and then ask pupils to articulate the consequences or implications.Ask how this new learning might be applied in another context.Concentrate on generalisations and key concepts.Ask different groups or individuals to offer new points or comment on other aspects (to deter repetition and require depth).Plenary is ‘fun’ but insufficient progress is demonstratedAim to include as many students as possible in the learning for as much of the time as possible.Keep the activities sharply focussed on the learning objectives and success criteria.Make sure the students do the work, not the teacher (see points above).<br />Finally, variety in plenaries is particularly important because:<br />Variety helps maintain freshness and engagement           <br />Choosing the appropriate strategy for a particular purpose helps to meet the lesson objectives more directly.           <br />'Novelty' can aid memorisation.<br />Section B<br />SEAL <br />&<br />Student Management<br />Keeping Students in Learning <br />281305184150<br />2863855048885<br />286385493204528130591440<br />1676405050155184150-10160<br />TOP 10 TIPS FOR CREATING A POSITIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN THE CLASSROOM.<br />Daphne James offers her top 10 ideas for making learning happen in the classroom.<br />Plan and deliver good lessons. Effective teaching promotes good student management. Lessons that are well planned to include differentiation for ability and different learning styles, activities that are engaging and challenging. Lessons that include assessment for learning opportunities and delivered with pace and enthusiasm.<br />Meet and greet. Some students are simply not in the right frame of mind at the start of a lesson. This is part of your relationship building with the students – actively demonstrating that you do like them and enjoy teaching them. A welcoming smile and positive comments about them shows you are interested in them as people, so give them that friendly welcome.<br />Respect: Students want respect. They want us to treat them in ways that show them that we value them as people as well as learners. Use a variety of ways to show students we value their work. Separate the challenging behaviour from the person and criticise the behaviour. Students feel respected when we listen to their interests, their concerns and viewpoints.<br />Voice Matching: Your voice should be the volume and intonation you expect from the student. Keep the tone of your voice low. Your speech should be positive, calm, clear and caring. Try not to use commands, be directional. <br />Move in: If you are speaking to an individual student, don’t shout across the room.<br />Move out: Once you have spoken to the student, the temptation is to remain close by, waiting for compliance. You are far more likely of success if you move away, expecting compliance. This enables the student to make a good choice without the stress of your presence.<br />Use and teach routines.<br />Create, teach and maintain routines appropriate for your teaching area e.g. coats off, equipment ready, bags away, what you want the student to do if he/she arrives late to your lesson etc..<br />Explain what is expected of the students. Prepare students for activities with routines for working. Ensure pupils know the routine procedures to carry out a task. Have routines for consistently. Have routines for managing challenging behaviours.<br />Commitment: If we want students to be committed to their learning, we need to show our commitment to them as people and learners. This means that we need to communicate to them that we know how well they are doing, that we understand what their strengths and their needs are and that we re deliberately using a variety of approaches to help overcome their difficulties. Students do not always understand that we are working in ways to help them succeed.<br />Give students lots of positive attention. Getting to know them as individuals. Be sociable with students, give them time, e.g. at the end of lessons, around school, on duty.<br />Involve students in the planning, the delivery and evaluation of some of your lessons. Get them to suggest how a topic should/could be delivered.<br />Create a wonderful learning environment – one that is both physically and emotionally motivating and stimulating. Where failure is seen as evidence that the student has tried. Where the classroom reminds them that they are there to learn – Motivational posters, behaviours you want to see, benefits of being actively involved in the lessons. Lots of praise and encouragement.<br />You keep the lines of communication open between the parents/carers. Let them know when their son/daughter has achieved some pretty amazing stuff! Use our reward system consistently. Always think who can I nominate for the Head’s Commendation this month?<br />When it necessitates, you be the one who speaks/communicates with the student’s parent/carer if behaviour is disappointing. Assuring both student and parent that your ultimate goal is for the student to be happy, successful and achieving at Oxford School.<br />What have I missed? What order would you place these student management tips in? Does it really matter? What does matter is that you do have planned and rehearsed strategies to manage the student, his/her emotions, learning and progress. That you have strategies that practically demonstrate that it is your greatest desire for the student to reach his/her full potential.<br />Finally – how do your students know that you have the best job in the world?<br />Daphne James<br />Deputy Head<br />De–escalation Techniques<br />Group Control<br />Have a clear routine when students arrive, one suggestion would be to copy down the aim and objective into their books.<br />Give attention to the well behaved students by giving them praise.<br />Check the students understanding throughout the lesson.<br />Have consistent methods of dealing with behaviour.<br />Do not leave behavioural issues unresolved. <br />Reward effort and endeavour.<br />Attitudes and Approach<br /><ul><li>Have a consistent approach. </li></ul>Appear calm and unhurried, try not to shout.<br />Be clear and firm about boundaries of acceptability.<br />Be aware of self – fulfilling prophesies and labelling.<br />Wherever possible, show trust in students.<br />Ask a colleague to assist when you are not solving the problem yourself.<br />Move every conversation onto the positive expectations as soon as is possible.<br />If you have called for assistance try not to list all the student’s mistakes in front of them.<br />Non – Verbal Behaviour<br />Move to the same level as students when talking to them –towering over them can be intimidating. <br />Be aware that some students can find any physical contact difficult.<br />Do not physically prevent a student from leaving a room. <br />Keep your posture neutral.<br />Be aware of personal space.<br />Verbal Behaviour<br />Remind students of former successes.<br />Put the onus on the student to resolve the situation.<br />Follow through any consequences you have issued.<br />Identify the options that the student has and the consequences of each option.<br />Student Pathways <br /> The Student Pathways team incorporates three different areas:<br />The Amber Zone.<br /> If a student moves out of the Blue and Green zones and does not respond to a HOF, the student is taken to the Amber zone either by the HOF or a member of the duty team.<br />One member of the student Pathways team is always part of the duty team, another member of the team also hosts the Amber zone. When a student is brought to the Amber Zone the team try to assist the student with reflecting on what they did wrong, how to correct the situation and prevent it from reoccurring. The students only stay for the remainder of that session in the Amber Zone. They will then be placed back into class or, in the case of a serious incident, SLT may decide that they be moved to the red zone.<br />The Student Pathways team enter the incident onto SIMS so that it is recorded that the student has been sent to the amber zone. Staff can then add their incident report to this entry. The department is responsible for deciding any consequence to the incident.<br />ReferralsThe Student Pathways team are responsible for coordinating all relevant agencies and interventions for students. This includes internal intervention, such as the Art Room and external agencies and interventions, such as the Drugs Counsellor, Woods Project, Full Circle, etc. The school counsellors are also part of the team and SEAL groups have now been added to the provision that we provide. If you know of a student who would benefit from an intervention, please complete a referral form or speak to the relevant AC.<br />11IP11IP are a group of 10 students in year 11 who were not coping with mainstream school. They are taught in the Inclusion project (next to the Art Room) for Tutor time, PSHE and core subjects. They continue to attend normal lessons for their option subjects. Additional support and high levels of contact with families and other relevant bodies are also provided.<br />Zone Progression Summary<br />This is to clarify the process of dealing with students who are unable to work in class. The Duty Team can be called by HOF to assist with any stage of this process.<br />Student unable to work in classdue to poor behaviourTaken to HOF/ Faculty Exclusion ClassTaken to Amber ZoneStudents stay for maximum of 1 period. After this time a decision is taken by SLT/ACStudent is able to be placed back into lessonsStudent is placed into the Red ZoneIf a student is unable to go into lessons because of emotional reasons ASW’s will support student. ASW will also monitor students who have recently returned from an FFTE or Red Zone exclusion. <br />centercenter<br />-12350751459230<br />Lessons in the Blue Zone<br />The following points were made by staff members at the PDA in October 2009. They were asked to describe lessons in the ‘Blue Zone’.<br />We are seeing2061210-542290On task behaviourTwo-way learning processEnjoymentInnovative risk-takingEveryone participatingConstructive collaborationHigh levels of engagement and enthusiasmProblem-solvingWe are thinking2013585-542290ReflectingHow can I find personalised learning opportunities?How can I introduce more challenge?What do we do next?Do I need higher expectations?How can I reward the students?We are saying1895475-548640Not much at all!Contextualised questioningPositive comments/reinforcementFormative assessmentQuality controlEncouraging students to look at one another’s work2012315-5028565We are feelingRelaxed and calmWarm and fuzzy!EnergisedMentally tired, but emotionally good about what’s going onPrideFulfilled – we’re achieving what we set out to doA buzzEmpowered<br />Red Zone Procedures<br />Red Zone Referrals:<br />If a student has had difficulty engaging with support from the Amber Zone, SLT may decide to place the student into the Red Zone for the rest of that day.<br />If a student has been involved in an incident and SLT have decided to use the Red Zone as an alternative to an FTE a red pack will be produced by Achievement Coordinator and agreed by SEW.<br />Informing Parents /Carer:<br />Once the decision has been made to place the student in the Red Zone, a telephone call will be made by the Achievement Coordinator to inform the parent/carer. <br />What happens before a student returns to Main Stream Classes:<br />A meeting will be arranged, which will involve the Achievement Coordinator, ASW and tutor where possible. A letter will be written by Heads PA confirming arrangements agreed, copies of which will be placed in the school file and onto Sims.<br />The student will sign the readmission document and follow a red report in the first instance. <br />Classroom Expectations in the Red Zone:<br />Expectations will be the same in the Red Zone as in any other classroom and if after three warnings the student does not turn things around then the Duty team will be called. If a student does not comply then an FTE will be recommended.<br />Work to be covered:<br />Each lesson will focus on a subject area, with one lesson given over to restore and repair. The HLTA will take a lead with the work that is completed and the student may have the opportunity to work on the computer, this will be determined by the HLTA.<br /> The HLTA and ND will work with the student during each lesson to ensure they are on task and focused. <br />Breaks:<br />At both breaks the student will be located in the Conference Centre, supervised by SLT. <br />SEW.<br />Rewards & Consequences Policy Classroom Teacher/ Tutor: Incentives Verbal praiseComment in plannerFaculty or Year MeritPostcard homeRefer to HoF /AC for Heads Commendation Tea.Classroom Teacher/Tutor: Consequences3 warnings (name on board)Time outSecond chancePhone call homeDetention at breakExtra homeworkHead of Faculty: IncentivesVerbal praiseComment in plannerFaculty MeritPostcard homeFaculty Prize.Refer to Heads Commendation Tea Refer to Achievement EveningHead of Faculty: ConsequencesBreak time detentionsPhone call homeMeeting with parent/carerFaculty detentionsFaculty warning letterAchievement Coordinator: Incentives Verbal praiseWrite in plannerTelephone callPostcard homeCertificates for attendanceTutor reward box in each tutor base culminating in AC reward each term for improved engagement and community service.Non uniform day penultimate Friday of each term( max 12 per year group)Referral to Achievement Evening ( yearly)Achievement Coordinator: ConsequencesMeeting with studentPlace on yellow reportPhone call homeMeeting with homeAchievement Co-ordinator warning letterAchievement Coordinator detentionReferral to Student Pathways interventionsReferral to SENReferral to outside agenciesSLT: IncentivesVerbal praisePostcard homePhone call homeRefer to Heads Commendation Tea (monthly)SLT: ConsequencesPlace on red reportMeeting with student & teacherTelephone call homeMeeting with homeSLT warning letterOn site alternative to FFTE in Red Zone.Request for fixed term exclusion Case ConferenceHeadteacher: IncentivesHeads praise in assembliesHeads letter of congratulationsHeads Commendation TeaHeads award at Achievement EveningHeadteacher: ConsequencesFixed term exclusionHeads warning letterHeads final written warning letterCase conferencePT/PEX<br />Staff are requested to log onto SIMS all data relating to incentives and consequences.<br />Report Cards<br />Students whose behaviour fails to meet our expectations will be placed on report card. There are three levels of report card.<br />GREEN REPORT CARD<br />Placed on report by tutor.<br />Recorded on Sims.<br />Parent informed by letter.<br />Monitored by tutor.<br />On report for a week, if behaviour is not modified moves to yellow report.<br />If behaviour has been modified student removed from report card and report card placed in school file.<br />AMBER REPORT CARD<br />Placed on report by Achievement Coordinator. <br />Recorded on SIMs. <br />Parent informed by letter.<br />Monitored by ASW.<br />On report for a week, if behaviour is not modified moves to red report.<br />If behaviour has been modified, student follows green report card with the tutor.<br />RED REPORT CARD<br />SLT lead informs AC that student is now on a red card.<br />This is a result of FTE, Red Zone or consistently getting wrong on yellow report.<br />Recorded on SIMs. <br />Parent informed by letter.<br />If behaviour has been modified after a week, student returns to yellow report. <br />Guidance for Staff on the completion<br />of Incident Reports<br />Please be mindful that when you are writing Incident Reports they can be read by parents, outside agencies and be dissected at case conferences.<br />Guidance for completion of Incident reports:<br />Write the facts.<br />Try to use bullet points.<br />If you use direct quotes use quotation marks.<br />Brief account of what lead to incident.<br />Avoid long description.<br />Be wary of saying something that may give an excuse for why the incident happened.<br />Please avoid telling the AC or SLT what action they should take.<br />Please record your action if it is an incident that does not require HoF or AC intervention.<br />Please follow guidelines for writing incident reports onto Simms9 see separate sheet).<br />Who do you give your report to?<br />Email via SIMS to HoF if the incident happens in class.<br />If whilst on duty email AC via SIMS.<br />If serious incident email via SIMS to AC HoF and SLT lead person. <br />What should happen next?<br />If further action is needed then this will be carried out by HoF or AC and is recorded onto SIMS.<br />ASWs follow up any unresolved incidents.<br />ASWs track and monitor individuals.<br />SEW.<br />