Jet Stream, Global Winds, and Convection By: Karondre, Gregory, and Yasir
Jet streams are fast moving, narrow bands of air currents found in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth. The main jet streams are located near the tropopause, the transition between the troposphere and the stratosphere Their paths typically have a changing shape; jet streams may start, stop, split into two or more parts, combine into one stream, or flow in various directions including the opposite direction of most of the jet. The strongest jet streams are the polar jets, at around 7–12 km above sea level, and the higher and somewhat weaker subtropical jets at around 10–16 km. Winds vary, but can reach 275 mph. Jet stream
This is a picture of a jet stream on the news. This jet stream made Hurricane Maria veer away from its course.
How the Jet Streams Affect Weather The jet streams create storms as they go along, and carry them and others like a piece of wood trapped in a fast moving stream of water. Also, in the northern hemisphere whenever a northern jet stream drops down to a more southern position, it brings cooler weather there, and whenever a more southern jet stream comes up, it brings warmer weather. In the southern hemisphere, the effects are the opposite.
The winds in different regions blow in different directions. In the tropical region, the blow from east to west, in the temperate region, they blow from west to east and in the polar region, they blow east to west. The winds also have names. The winds in the tropics are called trade winds, in the temperate they are westerly winds, and in the polar region, they are polar easterlies. Global Wind patterns
They effect weather by moving the air masses. For example, when hurricanes form in the tropical region, they blow from east to west, then once they get into the temperate region, they start to go east. If they survive long enough to get to the polar region, then they go west again. This is why hurricanes are as unlikely to hit America as they are. How Global Winds Affect Weather
Convection is the transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of the heated parts of a liquid or gas. For example, in a pot of boiling water over a burner, the water near the bottom will be warmer than the water near the top. Since warm water isn’t as dense as the cooler water, it rises and takes the place of the cooler water as the cooler water falls. The warmer water begins to cool and get denser than the water at the bottom of the pot since it is now farther from the heat source. This makes them switch places again and the cycle starts again. This happens to the air in our atmosphere except on a larger scale. The air nearest to the equator is heated more than the air at the poles, which makes it rise and the cool air drop. The warm air that rises then cools and drops back down to the equator as the cool air warms up at the equator and goes back up to the poles. Convection