Can owning a cell phone replace the desire to own a car?<br />The emerging entrepreneurs who are mashing-up intelligence +...
Executive Summary<br />Mobile-driven intelligence infrastructure way ahead transport infrastructure in most developing cou...
Mobile environment extremely competitive with some applications like mobile banking ahead of most developed contexts
Smartphones, which will leapfrog the PC, is expected to be ubiquitous in developing countries within 3-7 years</li></ul>En...
In Bengalaru, a mobile application developed for a specific market has not only scaled to users beyond the intended audien...
Entrepreneurs themselves may not want free access to technology since it helps preserve their competitive advantage and of...
Where is the next big opportunity to seed an intelligent retrofit of transport?  Can this be in part developed externally ...
Rush hour traffic in Bangkok<br />
Rush hour traffic in Kuala Lumpur<br />
The private auto lock-in* death spiral (city-scale)<br />City expands<br />“Transport infrastructure in the next 5-10 year...
The private auto lock-in* death spiral (rational consumer)<br />Cost per trip<br />Quality of mobility(no. of trips,<br />...
The private auto lock-in* death spiral (aspirational consumer)<br />The demand for private car use is inelastic and in par...
Most cities in developing Asia still with low per capita incomes and motorization rates<br />Sydney / Melbourne ($34K, 630...
. . . although lock-in may happen at lower motorization rates due to developing Asia’s higher densities<br />Sydney / Melb...
Improve Auto-Substitutes<br />2<br />1<br />Manage private motorization<br />Improve mobility of the ‘car and 2-wheeler-le...
Enter the mobile phone, the fastest growing, perhaps most value-adding product in human history<br />Tracks and locates us...
Mobile phone-driven intelligence infrastructure way ahead of transportation infrastructure in most developing Asian cities...
In developed contexts, an intelligence layer is creating new possibilities that may potentially deter private auto ownersh...
Entrepreneurs in developing Asia are beginning to pilot ways to use mobile-driven intelligence to create sustainable profi...
Improve Auto-Substitutes<br />2<br />1<br />Manage private motorization<br />Improve mobility of the ‘car and 2-wheeler-le...
3 Key Questions<br />To what extent is mobile-driven transport experimentation happening across developing Asia?<br />Are ...
1<br />To what extent is mobile-driven transport experimentation happening across developing Asia? <br />Fazilka<br />Delh...
2<br />3<br />C<br />4<br />5<br />1<br />1<br />2<br />Private vehicle-sharing<br />Makes driving a car easier<br />Share...
Factors that encourage experimentation<br />Significant user transport problem<br />Money | Commercial application<br />Tr...
2<br />Are current experiments sustainable and scalable(enough to provide real alternatives to private car use)?<br />Beng...
Entrepreneurs = Low-Cost Leapfrog Strategy<br />3<br />Significant impact beyond intended design<br />How scalable are cur...
2<br />Case Study 1. Fazilka Eco-Cabs<br />Rickshaw drivers in Fazilka, 2011 <br />
Case Study 1. Fazilka Eco-Cabs<br />Fazilka – Compact city of 100K in the northwest Indian province of Punjab, 10km from t...
Case Study 1. Fazilka Eco-Cabs<br />Gains of Intelligence<br />10%<br />Increase in rickshaw network efficiency.  Calling ...
Standardized, transparent pricing</li></ul>Costs – <br /><ul><li>Cost of call (50 paise per minute, lowest in world)
No surcharge for on-demand</li></ul>Risks –<br /><ul><li>Switch to motorised modes e.g. two-wheelers</li></ul>Org Type – N...
Investments in new Eco-cabs 10,000 rupees ($250 each)
Managerial costs (2)</li></ul>Funding – <br /><ul><li>Self-funded with donations</li></ul>Profit –<br /><ul><li>Loss; Stra...
Free health care
Tour guide training (in tourist cities like Patiala)
Access to credit to purchase new, lesslabor-intensive eco-cab at low rate of interest (4%)
Access to add’l revenue from selling water (8 rupees)
Unquantifiable psychic benefits of being an on-call service provider, rather than as a cheap mode of transport</li></ul>Co...
Case Study 1. Fazilka Eco-Cabs<br />Amritsar (1.2M)<br />80 eco-cabs launched<br />3<br />High Court judge based in Chandi...
Local partners in each city to advocate and fund experiments
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Can owning a cell phone replace the desire to use a car? Field research ed

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  1. 1. Can owning a cell phone replace the desire to own a car?<br />The emerging entrepreneurs who are mashing-up intelligence + transportation in developing Asia<br />Albert Ching<br />Masters of City Planning Candidate, 2012<br />Research Assistant, Future of Urban Mobility Singapore<br />
  2. 2. Executive Summary<br />Mobile-driven intelligence infrastructure way ahead transport infrastructure in most developing countries<br /><ul><li>860 million phones vs. 13 million cars in India
  3. 3. Mobile environment extremely competitive with some applications like mobile banking ahead of most developed contexts
  4. 4. Smartphones, which will leapfrog the PC, is expected to be ubiquitous in developing countries within 3-7 years</li></ul>Entrepreneurs across developing Asia retrofitting intelligence onto existing transport modes in small doses, mostly to make para-transit more demand responsive<br /><ul><li>The technology developed is unique in each context, reflecting the independent nature of these experiments</li></ul>Early case studies of mash-ups have shown potential, unexpected impact of intelligent retrofits to scale beyond addressing a deficiency in a specific transport user experience<br /><ul><li>In Fazilka, intelligence coupled with the age-old rickshaw has spurred improvements in the transport vehicle itself and also new investments in road space for non-motorised vehicles
  5. 5. In Bengalaru, a mobile application developed for a specific market has not only scaled to users beyond the intended audience but may also produce valuable customer data and a means to directly reach out to public/shared transport users</li></ul>How to and how much to accelerate this experimentation remains an open questio<br /><ul><li>Technologically, applications do not seem complex enough to warrant cutting-edge research
  6. 6. Entrepreneurs themselves may not want free access to technology since it helps preserve their competitive advantage and off the shelf technology still needs to be localized
  7. 7. Where is the next big opportunity to seed an intelligent retrofit of transport? Can this be in part developed externally in Singapore or at MIT?</li></li></ul><li>The problem<br />The problem<br />Pre-rush hour traffic in Jakarta<br />Rush hour traffic in Jakarta<br />
  8. 8. Rush hour traffic in Bangkok<br />
  9. 9. Rush hour traffic in Kuala Lumpur<br />
  10. 10. The private auto lock-in* death spiral (city-scale)<br />City expands<br />“Transport infrastructure in the next 5-10 years to support motorization will lock-in transport-related CO2 emission patterns for the coming 20-30 years in Asia”(ADB 2009)<br />2<br />Poor pedestrian<br />walkways<br />Investment in road infrastructure*<br />1<br />“The poor typically make 20-30% less trips and rely much more on non-motorised and public transport. The poor have a more limited range of destinations, being more focused on core destinations”(GTZ Sourcebook 2002)<br />Public transport poor<br />Gov’t with limited resources<br />Low ridership<br />Mass transit extremely costly, difficult to implement, and does not reduce congestion<br />(Gakenheimer 2011)<br />Poor with limited mobility<br />Increases congestion<br />“Transport-related CO2 emissions expected to increase 57% worldwide from 2005-30 . . . the majority of these will come from private vehicles”(ADB 2009)<br />Middle- & upper-class purchase private 2- or 4-wheeler*<br />Air pollution<br />3<br />Unsustainable levels of CO2 + GHGs<br />
  11. 11. The private auto lock-in* death spiral (rational consumer)<br />Cost per trip<br />Quality of mobility(no. of trips,<br />accessibility to destinations, comfort, convenience,<br />productivity)<br />Private auto<br />1<br />Private 2-wheeler<br />In developing Asia where public transport and non-motorised options are poor, the quality of mobility increases significantly with access to private vehicles<br />2<br />Once consumers are locked-in, they may not perceive the effective increase in cost per trip<br />“The costs of a single automobile journey are systematically underestimated because they are perceived primarily in terms of fuel costs” (UNEP 2009)<br />Para-transit<br />Bicycle<br />Public transport<br />Walk<br />-ing<br />Private 2-wheeler<br />Bicycle<br />Private auto<br />Personal income<br />Auto lock-in*<br />
  12. 12. The private auto lock-in* death spiral (aspirational consumer)<br />The demand for private car use is inelastic and in part a result of the billions of dollars spent by the automotive industry (Gardener and Abraham 2007)<br />
  13. 13. Most cities in developing Asia still with low per capita incomes and motorization rates<br />Sydney / Melbourne ($34K, 630)<br />Car ownership income threshold Acharya & Morichi(2007)<br />$5-$6,000 PPP<br />Autos per 1000 people<br />2<br />Unrestrained motorization<br />In previous studies, strongest determinant of car ownership rates was income levels<br />Tokyo*($30K, 275)<br />Kuala Lumpur($12K, 270)<br />Seoul*($23K, 220)<br />Bangkok($7K, ~200)<br />Singapore ($43K, 150)<br />Restrained motorization<br />1<br />3<br />Low motorization<br />Beijing / Shanghai($7K, 80)<br />Hong Kong($39K, 80)<br />Jakarta($4K, 50)<br />Manilla($3K, 30)<br />Bangalore($3K, 12)<br />Per capita income (2009 Fixed $PPP)<br />Dhaka($1K, 2)<br />Source: Barter (1999) updated with current statistics from Wikipedia / Gapminder<br />*Income figures only available at country level; Motorization 2004 figures<br />Significant car ownership aspiration (Source: AC Nielson)<br />
  14. 14. . . . although lock-in may happen at lower motorization rates due to developing Asia’s higher densities<br />Sydney / Melbourne (630, 20)<br />Autos per 1000 people<br />Do higher densities limit short-term motorization and/or eventually lead to lower density development?<br />Tokyo*(275, 50)<br />Kuala Lumpur(240, 8)<br />Seoul*(220, 90)<br />Bangkok(~200, 65)<br />Singapore (150, 93)<br />Auto lock-in line<br />Beijing / Shanghai (80, 150)<br />Hong Kong(80, 70)<br />Jakarta(50, 100)<br />Manilla(30, 78)<br />Bangalore(12, 130)<br />Low motorization cities all expected to increase urban populations by 10-90%<br />Dhaka(2, 89)<br />Urban density(Persons per hectare)<br />Source: Acharya and Morichi (2005) updated with current statistics from Wikipedia / Gapminder<br />*Motorization 2004 figures<br />
  15. 15. Improve Auto-Substitutes<br />2<br />1<br />Manage private motorization<br />Improve mobility of the ‘car and 2-wheeler-less’<br />Invest in new public/shared transport assets & infrastructure<br />Make private vehicles<br />more costly to drive<br />Make private vehicles less attractive to drive<br />A<br />(+) Vehicle taxes<br />(+) Congestion pricing(+) Fuel taxes<br />(+) Parking fees<br />(-) Domestic car industry (-) Income growth<br />(+) Compact land use(+) Car pool lanes<br />(+) Congestion*<br />(+) Difficult drivingconditions *(+) Vehicle theft*<br />(-) Sprawling land use<br />(-) Road construction<br />(-) Car commercials and billboards*<br />Most ‘sustainable transport’ efforts focus on larger scale public transport investments under the “Avoid, Shift, Improve” framework <br />(+) BRT<br />(+) Metro<br />(+) Pedestrian, bicycle, and cycle rickshaw lanes<br />*Unintentional<br />Restrict Car Use<br />
  16. 16. Enter the mobile phone, the fastest growing, perhaps most value-adding product in human history<br />Tracks and locates user travel demand in real-time<br />1<br />Enables productive use<br />of travel time<br />3<br />Provides real-time travel<br />supply information for users <br />2<br />Provides information on <br />new destinations<br />4<br />Personalization<br />Can become a new <br />vehicle for travel payments<br />5<br />
  17. 17. Mobile phone-driven intelligence infrastructure way ahead of transportation infrastructure in most developing Asian cities <br />Not just mobile devices<br />India boasts not just 860 million phones vs. 13 million cars but also the most competitive mobile phone market in the world. the world’s lowest telephony rates and a new 3G network<br />3.9x<br />4.9x<br />4.7x<br />35x<br />66x<br />201x<br />
  18. 18. In developed contexts, an intelligence layer is creating new possibilities that may potentially deter private auto ownership <br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />Makes existing shared modes more efficient and on-demand<br />Creates sharing systems for private modes<br />Increases the opportunity cost of driving<br />Makes sharing and shared transport super cool!<br />Intelligence can<br />enlarge the circle of trust by managing user behavior as well as fleet logistics<br />The best thing to happen to public transit is the invention of the smartphone<br />Mobile apps are making transit more convenient, personalized and integrated with the community <br />(In less dense environments) intelligence can more efficiently match real-time para-transit supply and demand<br />Provides economic benefit to drivers<br />Can provide accessibility to more disadvantaged populations (women, poor)<br />Responsive environments like piano-playing staircases and social networking may help to create new, attractive experiences that can only happen in shared space<br />Most Asian cultures based in dense environments already very familiar with sharing<br />Smartphones expect to be pervasive in developing Asia in 3-5 years<br />Productivity-conscious commuter<br />Special occasion commuter <br />Social commuter<br />Time-sensitive commuter<br />
  19. 19. Entrepreneurs in developing Asia are beginning to pilot ways to use mobile-driven intelligence to create sustainable profit from these transport efficiency gains <br />Normal motorcycle taxi utilization rate = 30%<br />Go-JEK, on-demand motorcycle taxi and goods delivery service in Jakarta, launched February 2011<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Improve Auto-Substitutes<br />2<br />1<br />Manage private motorization<br />Improve mobility of the ‘car and 2-wheeler-less’<br />Invest in new public/shared transport assets & infrastructure<br />Make private vehicles<br />more costly to drive<br />Improve existing transport user experience<br />Make private vehicles less attractive to drive<br />B<br />A<br />(+) Vehicle taxes<br />(+) Congestion pricing(+) Fuel taxes<br />(+) Parking fees<br />(-) Domestic car industry (-) Income growth<br />(+) Compact land use(+) Car pool lanes<br />(+) Congestion*<br />(+) Difficult drivingconditions *(+) Vehicle theft*<br />(-) Sprawling land use<br />(-) Road construction<br />(-) Car commercials and billboards*<br />Most ‘sustainable transport’ efforts focus on larger scale public transport investments under the “Avoid, Shift, Improve” framework <br />(+) BRT<br />(+) Metro<br />(+) Pedestrian, bicycle, and cycle rickshaw lanes<br />“In most developing cities, public/shared transport share is very high – maintaining those market shares is the first priority”<br />- ChhaviDhinga, GTZ<br />Mobile-driven intelligence may help serve the last mile in transport user adoption<br />*Unintentional<br />Restrict Car Use<br />
  22. 22. 3 Key Questions<br />To what extent is mobile-driven transport experimentation happening across developing Asia?<br />Are current experiments sustainable and scalable (enough to provide real alternatives to private car use)?<br />Are there impacts of these experiments that go beyond its intended design?<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />
  23. 23. 1<br />To what extent is mobile-driven transport experimentation happening across developing Asia? <br />Fazilka<br />Delhi<br />Dhaka<br />Mumbai<br />Bangkok<br />Bengalaru<br />Kuala Lumpur<br />Singapore<br />Field Visit<br />Jakarta<br /> | summer 2011 field research<br />
  24. 24. 2<br />3<br />C<br />4<br />5<br />1<br />1<br />2<br />Private vehicle-sharing<br />Makes driving a car easier<br />Shared Transport Social Fun<br />Makes existing shared modes more efficient and on-demand<br />Safety /<br />Payments<br />MobileProductivity<br />On-DemandAuto Taxi<br />Navigation<br />Bus<br />Arrival<br />SINGAPORE<br />Car Sharing<br />DID NOT VISIT<br />KUALA LUMPUR<br />Congestion<br />Tracking<br />Fare-Tracking<br />On-DemandMotor-cycle<br />On-DemandAuto Taxi<br />BANGKOK<br />Bus<br />Arrival<br />Car Pooling<br />On-DemandCycle Rickshaw<br />On-DemandAuto Rickshaw<br />JAKARTA<br />Fare-Tracking / Safety Alerts<br />Rail<br />Arrival<br />BicycleSharing<br />DELHI/MUMBAI/BANGALORE/<br />FAZILKA<br />VehicleSecurity<br />Constellation of Experiments | August 2011<br />DHAKA<br />
  25. 25. Factors that encourage experimentation<br />Significant user transport problem<br />Money | Commercial application<br />Transport partnership<br />SINGAPORE<br />Technical<br />expertise<br />Entrepreneurial activity, low density, government regulations<br />DID NOT VISIT<br />KUALA LUMPUR<br />BANGKOK<br />JAKARTA<br />DELHI/MUMBAI/BANGALORE/<br />FAZILKA<br />Constellation of Experiments | August 2011<br />DHAKA<br />
  26. 26. 2<br />Are current experiments sustainable and scalable(enough to provide real alternatives to private car use)?<br />Bengalaru<br />Fazilka<br />Delhi<br />Jakarta<br />Kuala Lumpur<br />Selected Case Studies<br />
  27. 27. Entrepreneurs = Low-Cost Leapfrog Strategy<br />3<br />Significant impact beyond intended design<br />How scalable are current experiments beyond the intended context? Are there unexpected (and unintended) benefits to the intelligent retrofit?<br />Are these experiments happening in developing Asia?<br />1<br />A<br />2<br />= Economic and/or social value<br />Local entrepreneurs<br />+<br />Are current experiments sustainable?<br />Poor transport user experience<br />3<br />1<br />4<br />2<br />5<br />
  28. 28. 2<br />Case Study 1. Fazilka Eco-Cabs<br />Rickshaw drivers in Fazilka, 2011 <br />
  29. 29. Case Study 1. Fazilka Eco-Cabs<br />Fazilka – Compact city of 100K in the northwest Indian province of Punjab, 10km from the Pakistan border, “where India begins”<br />1 km<br />50-60 rickshaw drivers + 1 chai wallah call center<br />Launched in 2008 by NavdeepAsija, an IIT-Delhi PhD student and traffic safety expert and the Graduate Welfare Association of Fazilka<br />1 km<br />Problem – Originally inspired as a way for entrepreneur’s mother to access the local market. A majority of younger population moving out of Fazilka towards larger urban hubs like Chandigarh and New Delhi. <br />Solution – World’s first dial-a-rickshaw service. 500 independent cycle rickshaw drivers operating in Fazilka divided into 9 one sq km sectors and slowly incorporated into a more demand-responsive networked fleet. Users dial the local chai wallah in their zone when they require service and the first available rickshaw driver in the queue is dispatched. Waiting times usually under 10 minutes. <br />Figure is illustrative; zone demarcations and call center location may not be exact <br />Overview<br />
  30. 30. Case Study 1. Fazilka Eco-Cabs<br />Gains of Intelligence<br />10%<br />Increase in rickshaw network efficiency. Calling service nets an add’l 30-40 calls per sector per day, or 1-2 add’l higher value return trips (20/25 rupees vs. 10) per rickshaw driver. Each rickshaw driver makes 12-15 trips per day.<br />Key stakeholders<br />Cycle Rickshaw Drivers +++<br />Entrepreneur - <br />Customers+<br />Benefits – <br /><ul><li>Door-to-door, on-demand rickshaw service
  31. 31. Standardized, transparent pricing</li></ul>Costs – <br /><ul><li>Cost of call (50 paise per minute, lowest in world)
  32. 32. No surcharge for on-demand</li></ul>Risks –<br /><ul><li>Switch to motorised modes e.g. two-wheelers</li></ul>Org Type – Non-Profit<br />Revenue – <br /><ul><li>Minimal; Limited advertising on new Eco-cabs</li></ul>Costs – <br /><ul><li>Calling costs  500 SIM cards donated by BSNL
  33. 33. Investments in new Eco-cabs 10,000 rupees ($250 each)
  34. 34. Managerial costs (2)</li></ul>Funding – <br /><ul><li>Self-funded with donations</li></ul>Profit –<br /><ul><li>Loss; Strategy to keep costs (incl. intelligence) as low as possible for easier replicability</li></ul>Risks<br />Benefits – <br /><ul><li>+15% profit, 20-25 rupees per day
  35. 35. Free health care
  36. 36. Tour guide training (in tourist cities like Patiala)
  37. 37. Access to credit to purchase new, lesslabor-intensive eco-cab at low rate of interest (4%)
  38. 38. Access to add’l revenue from selling water (8 rupees)
  39. 39. Unquantifiable psychic benefits of being an on-call service provider, rather than as a cheap mode of transport</li></ul>Costs – <br /><ul><li>Code of conduct incl. adherence to price structure</li></ul>Risks –<br /><ul><li>Some cycle rickshaw drivers do not want add’l business and a few have exploited customers</li></ul>Sustainability<br />
  40. 40. Case Study 1. Fazilka Eco-Cabs<br />Amritsar (1.2M)<br />80 eco-cabs launched<br />3<br />High Court judge based in Chandigarh saw article and issued a “suomoto,” or court-ordered mandate, to introduce eco-cabs throughout Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana <br />Ludhiana (1.7M)<br />Source of eco-cab<br />manufacturing<br />3<br />2<br />Key Challenges<br />Chandigarh (900k)<br />Eco-cabs to be launched<br /><ul><li>Slow process of adoption by cycle rickshaw drivers; Requires significant face-to-face time in each town
  41. 41. Local partners in each city to advocate and fund experiments
  42. 42. Management of larger fleet including scaling technology to centralised call centers in bigger cities
  43. 43. Linguistic and political differences in state of Haryana</li></ul>(10k population)<br />3<br />3<br />1<br />Patiala (1.9M)<br />55 eco-cabs launched in 2011<br />Sangrur (80k)<br />20 eco-cabs launched<br />India Express, a leading newspaper in Punjab publishes a front-page article on the Fazilka eco-cab experiment<br />Scalability<br />
  44. 44. Case Study 1. Fazilka Eco-Cabs<br />Car-free zones<br />6<br />On-demand eco-cab<br />Walking<br />Cycling<br />On-demand cycle rickshaw<br />Cycle rickshaw<br />6<br />5<br />1<br />4<br />2<br />3<br />Leapfrog Impact<br />
  45. 45. India is an ancient society. For many years, only few people had knowledge. It was blood by chance.<br />The mobile phone is a godsend . . . [and]information can break the stranglehold of the ovarian lottery sealed in India’s old hierarchies and shackles.<br />- Sachin Pilot, India Minister of Communications and Information Technology<br />
  46. 46. Role of Cutting-Edge Technologies<br />Technology has NOT been the panacea to solve user transport problems -- most observed innovation required has been incremental - the localization of existing technologies to a specific context<br />Google CIO Douglas Merrill’s 3 Types of Innovation<br />. . . but incremental innovation can have positive side effects beyond solving a specific user problem and may pave the way for more transformational innovations . . .<br />
  47. 47. Next Steps . . . <br />1<br />How to and how fast to accelerate experimentation?<br />Where is the next big opportunity to seed an intelligent retrofit of transport? Can this be in part developed externally in Singapore or at MIT?<br />2<br />
  48. 48. Custom, One-Off Tech Development<br />GPS, algorithmic optimization<br />Radio broadcast<br />Territory-based queuing<br />Avg wait time range: 4-30 minutes<br />Wait time range: 5-10 minutes<br />User request geo-coded to a location – algorithm matches the closest, available taxi in the area based on GPS location; Taxi sends SMS or signal to confirm request<br />Ex. Comfort Delgro<br />User request broadcast to entire fleet over radio– first driver to respond takes the request<br />Ex. Taxis in Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok<br />User request called into locally-based chai wallah – first driver in fixed territory based queue takes the request<br />Ex. Fazilka Eco-cabs <br />
  49. 49. The Future of Urban Mobility<br />
  50. 50. Acknowledgements<br />Sponsor<br />Singapore-MIT Alliance for Future Urban Mobility<br />Principal AdvisorsChris Zegras, MIT Asst. Prof. of Urban Studies and Planning<br />Paul Barter, NUS Asst. Prof. at LKY School of Public Policy <br />Entrepreneurs <br />NavdeepAsija, Fazilka Eco-Cabs<br />RaveeAahluwalia, Patiala Eco-Cabs<br />Sundara Raman, Ideophone<br />Anenth Guru, Ideophone<br />SandeepBhaskar, Ideophone<br />SanjeevGarg, Delhi Cycles<br />Atul Jain, Delhi Cycle<br />HR Murali, Namma Cycle<br />Anthony Tan, My Teksi<br />Hooi Ling Tan, My Teksi<br />NadiemMakarim, GO-Jek<br />Arup Chakti, NITS <br />Leading Thinkers<br />ApiwatRatanwahara, Chulalongkorn University<br />SorawitNarupiti, Chulalongkorn University<br />Zia Wadud, BUET<br />Charisma Chowdhury, BUET<br />Moshahida Sultana, University of Dhaka<br />GeetamTewari, IIT-Delhi<br />AnvitaArora, IIT-Delhi<br />Rajinder Ravi, cycle rickshaw expert<br />Tri Tjahjono, Univesiti Indonesia<br />JamillahMohamad, University of Malaya<br />Advocates<br />Debra Efroymson, Work for a Better Bangladesh<br />MarufRahman, Work for a Better Bangladesh<br />Akshay Mani, EMBARQ<br />MadhavPai, EMBARQ<br />ChhaviDhingra, GTZ-India<br />Eric Zusman, IGES<br />Yoga Adiwinarto, ITDP Indonesia<br />RestitiSekartini, ITDP Indonesia<br />Government<br />AnisurRahman, Dhaka Transport and Coordination Board<br />Rajendar Kumar, Indian Dept of Information Technology<br />Anil Sethi, Mayor of Fazilka<br />ProdyutDutt, ADB India<br />Penny Lukito, BAPPENAS Indonesia<br />FirdausAli, Jakarta Water Provision<br />Industry<br />RD Sharma, HI-BIRD Bicycles<br />Comfort Cab Malaysia<br />PornthipKonghun, Googlers Thailand<br />GautamAnand, Google Singapore<br />Rahul Desai, Google Singapore<br />Evan Sidarto, Google Singapore<br />James McClure, Google Singapore<br />KapilGoswami, Google India<br />
  51. 51. For the aspiring Asian, however, compared to a private automobile, the alternatives leave much to be desired<br />Un-Marketed<br />Perception that only poor people cycle in India<br />
  52. 52. Overcrowded<br />Dilapidated public / private bus service in Dhaka, 2011 <br />
  53. 53. Unsafe<br />Questionable taxi drivers in Bangkok esp for women, 2011 <br />
  54. 54. Unclear Fares <br />Overcharging auto-rickshaw driver in Bangalore, 2011 <br />
  55. 55. Unclear Routes<br />Inexperienced driver, town to village public transport service in Fazilka, 2011 <br />
  56. 56. Long Waits<br />30 min wait for radio taxis in Kolkata, 2011 <br />
  57. 57. Not-On-Demand<br />Idling cycle rickshaw drivers in Patiala, 2011 <br />30 min wait for radio taxis in Kolkata, 2011 <br />
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