Ms. Susan M. PojerMs. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NYHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NYSome Edits By Mr. CaseySome Edits By Mr. Casey
RetreatRetreat (verb) to(verb) tostop fighting andstop fighting andmove away from themove away from theenemyenemy
siegesiege (noun) the(noun) thesurrounding of asurrounding of aplace by the enemyplace by the enemyto capture itto capture it
campaigncampaign (noun) a(noun) aseries of battles toseries of battles toachieve a specificachieve a specificpurposepurpose
turning pointturning point (noun)(noun)a time whena time whenimportant changesimportant changesoccuroccur
mercenarymercenary (noun) a(noun) asoldier who fightssoldier who fightsfor another countryfor another countryfor moneyfor money
BritainBritain AmericansAmericansTories or LoyalistsTories or Loyalists Patriots or Whigs orPatriots or Whigs orColonists or AmericansColonists or AmericansBritish/Hessians/SomeBritish/Hessians/SomeNative AmericansNative AmericansAmericans/French/SpanishAmericans/French/Spanish(some Native Americans)(some Native Americans)On the Eve of theOn the Eve of theRevolution ?Revolution ?
BritainBritain AmericansAmericansAdvantagesAdvantages*Trained Soldiers*Trained Soldiers*Strongest Navy*Strongest Navy*Money to hire*Money to hiremercenariesmercenaries*Defending their own*Defending their ownhome so time andhome so time andgeography are notgeography are notissuesissuesDisadvantagesDisadvantages*Long Supply Line*Long Supply Line*British people get*British people gettired of wartired of war*Poorly trained and*Poorly trained andsuppliedsupplied*Service is short time*Service is short timeOn the Eve of theOn the Eve of theRevolution ?Revolution ?
WashingtonWashington’’s Headachess HeadachesOnly 1/3 of the colonists were infavor of a war for independence [theother third were Loyalists, and thefinal third were neutral].State/colony loyalties.Congress couldn’t tax to raise moneyfor the ContinentalArmy.Poor training and short service time[until the arrival of Baron vonSteuben].
Military StrategiesMilitary StrategiesAttrition [theBrits had a longsupply line].Guerilla tactics[fight aninsurgent war you don’thave to win abattle, justwear the Britishdown]Make analliance withone of Britain’senemies.The Americans The BritishBreak thecolonies in halfby gettingbetween theNo. & the So.Blockade theports to preventthe flow ofgoods andsupplies from anally.“Divide andConquer” usethe Loyalists.
ambassadorambassador (noun) a(noun) arepresentative sentrepresentative sentby one governmentby one governmentto anotherto another
negotiatenegotiate (verb) to(verb) totalk abouttalk aboutsomething in ordersomething in orderto reach anto reach anagreementagreement
financefinance (verb) to(verb) toprovide money forprovide money for
Phase I:Phase I: The Northern CampaignThe Northern Campaign[1775-1776][1775-1776]- Battle of Lexington and Concord- Battle of Bunker Hill- British are forced out of Boston- Americans defeated at Quebec
Phase I:Phase I: The Northern CampaignThe Northern Campaign[1775-1776][1775-1776]Success inseveral battlesgive thePatriotsconfidence.They try to takeQuebec, aBritishstronghold.They aredefeated andhave to retreat.
The Northern CampaignThe Northern Campaign[1775-1776][1775-1776]*General Howe and 32,000troops defeat Washington inseveral battles, capturing NewYork and key positions on theHudson River (Fort Washingtonand Battle of Long Island)
New York City in FlamesNew York City in Flames(1776)(1776)*People begin to doubt Washington’s ability
Battle of TrentonBattle of Trenton*The British hunker down for thewinter. Washington is determined tohave victory. He has lost 90% of histroops to capture, death, or desertion.He has a few thousand men left. Hedecides to cross the Delaware onChristmas morning and surprise theHessian army camping at Trenton. It isa quick victory. It is a small victory butimportant to morale and hope.
Washington Crossing the DelawareWashington Crossing the DelawarePainted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851
Quebec and BurgoyneQuebec and BurgoyneBritish forces based inQuebec head south. Theydefeat the Americansseveral times, but theymake the mistake ofstretching their supply line.They run low on suppliesand the Americanseventually defeat them atthe Battle of Saratoga
Saratoga:Saratoga:““Turning PointTurning Point””of the War?of the War?A modern-day re-enactment
N.Y. and General HoweN.Y. and General HoweThe Patriots are defeatedat the Battle ofGermantown andBrandywine. Washingtonwinters at Valley Forge.In 1778, France andSpain join the Patriots.They provide soldiersand a naval fleet.General Howe resigns his postand is replaced by General HenryClinton
N.Y. and General HoweN.Y. and General HoweGeneral Howe resigns under pressureand criticism. He is replaced by GeneralHenry Clinton who places GeneralCornwallis in charge of the British army.They switch tactics!Cornwallis Clinton
Phase IIIPhase III:: The SouthernThe SouthernStrategyStrategy [1780-1781][1780-1781]
BritainBritain’’ss ““Southern StrategySouthern Strategy””Britain thought that there weremore Loyalists in the South.Take the south and move northSouthern resources were morevaluable/worth preserving.The British win a number of smallvictories, but cannot pacify thecountrysideGood US General:Nathanael Greene frustrates theBritish
Guerilla WarfareGuerilla WarfareGreat Leaders in the southGuerilla warfare frustrates theBritish. They win the major battlesbut have a hard time controlling thesouth because of great leaders like:Nathanael Greene:Splits his force intwo and only attacks when he hasthe advantageFrancis Marion “Swamp Fox”
The Battle of Yorktown (1781)The Battle of Yorktown (1781)Count deRochambeauAdmiralDe Grasse
The Battle of Yorktown (1781)The Battle of Yorktown (1781)General Cornwallis defeats theColonial Army at Charlestown andCamden. In 1781, Cornwallis arrivesin Yorktown. Washington abandonsplans for recapturing New York anddecides to head for Yorktown.Washington, Rochambeau, and theFrench fleet trap Cornwallis atYorktown and force his surrender.
CornwallisCornwallis’’ Surrender at Yorktown:Surrender at Yorktown:Painted by John Trumbull, 1797““TheWorldTurnedUpsideDown! TheWorldTurnedUpsideDown!””
North America After theNorth America After theTreaty of Paris, 1783Treaty of Paris, 1783
constitution (noun)a written plan ofgovernment
territory (noun) landowned or controlledby a particularcountry
policy (noun) a planfor doing or managingsomething
Weaknesses of theWeaknesses of theArticles of ConfederationArticles of ConfederationCongress: No separation of powerswith a judicial and executive branch[9 of 13 votes to pass a law].13 out of 13 votes to amend a law.Representatives were frequentlyabsent.Could not tax or raise armies.No Power to regulate commerce
State ConstitutionsState ConstitutionsRepublicanism.Most had strong governors with vetopower.Property required for voting.Some had universal white malesuffrage.Most had bills of rights.Many had a continuation of state-established religions while othersdisestablished religion.
State Claims to Western LandsState Claims to Western Lands
Strength of theStrength of theArticles of ConfederationArticles of ConfederationLAND ORDINANCE OF 1785NORTHWEST ORDINANCE (1787)
Strength of theStrength of theArticles of ConfederationArticles of ConfederationNORTHWEST ORDINANCE (1787)Divided open land into smaller areas (for newstates) and made it impossible for older states totake the landHabeas CorpusTrial by JuryReligious FreedomNew areas could apply for statehood when theyreached 60,000 peopleOutlawed Slavery in new statesRequired school for all new towns
Strength of theStrength of theArticles of ConfederationArticles of ConfederationIf a nation expects to beignorant and free, in a state ofcivilization, it expects whatnever was and never will be.-Thomas Jefferson
Northwest Ordinance of 1787Northwest Ordinance of 1787Statehood achieved in three stages:1. Congress appointed 3 judges & a governor togovern the territory.2. When population reached 5,000 adult malelandowners elect territorial legislature.3. When population reached 60,000 electdelegates to a state constitutional convention.
The United States in 1787The United States in 1787
Annapolis Convention (1786)Annapolis Convention (1786)12 representatives from 5 states[NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA]GOAL address barriers thatlimited trade and commerce betweenthe states.Not enough states were representedto make any real progress.Sent a report to the Congress to calla meeting of all the states to meetin Philadelphia to examine areasbroader than just trade andcommerce.
ShaysShays’’ Rebellion: 1786-7Rebellion: 1786-7Daniel ShaysWestern MASmall farmers angered by crushingdebts and taxes.
ShaysShays’’ Rebellion: 1786-7Rebellion: 1786-7There could be nostronger evidence ofthe want of energy inour governments thanthese disorders.-- George Washington-- George Washington
Federalist vs. Anti-FederalistFederalist vs. Anti-FederalistStrongholds at the End of the WarStrongholds at the End of the WarFederalist - (in favor of theconstitution) Wanted a strong centralgovernment with checks andbalancesAnitfederalists - (against theconstitution) The central government hadtoo much power and there was no Bill ofRights to guarantee people’s rights
Federalist vs. Anti-FederalistFederalist vs. Anti-FederalistStrongholds at the End of the WarStrongholds at the End of the War
The Federalist PapersThe Federalist Papers• Written byWritten by JamesJamesMadisonMadison,, AlexanderAlexanderHamiltonHamilton, and, and JohnJohnJayJay. They were. They werepublished in New Yorkpublished in New Yorkpapers to try andpapers to try andpersuade people topersuade people toagree with their ideasagree with their ideason central governmenton central government