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1. 1. General Purpose Packages Spreadsheets
2. 2. What is a Spreadsheet? <ul><li>Spreadsheets are used mainly for recording mathematical data such as bank records, accounts, bills, scientific records etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets carry out calculations based on the numbers and formula entered in them. </li></ul>
3. 3. Spreadsheet Structure <ul><li>A spreadsheet basically consists of an electronic table or grid, made up of cells . </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell is named from the column and row which it occupies. </li></ul>
4. 4. Cells, Columns and Rows <ul><li>Cells are arranged in rows and columns . </li></ul><ul><li>The rows are referenced by numbers and the columns by letters. </li></ul>Column Row Cell
5. 5. Values, Text, and Formulae. <ul><li>A cell can contain one of three types of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A value (number) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or a formula </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells containing formulae allow us to perform calculations using data stored in other cells. </li></ul>
6. 6. Formulas <ul><li>There are four basic calculations that can be performed in spreadsheets. These are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition ( + ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtraction ( - ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiplication ( * ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division ( / ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formulae always start with the equals sign (=) to show that the content in the cell is equal to the formula it calculates </li></ul>
7. 7. Formulas <ul><li>Simple Formulas </li></ul><ul><li>An example of a simple formula: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= A3+B9 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex Formulas </li></ul><ul><li>An example of a Complex formula: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= ((A9*100)-(B9*50)+(H12*H12))/G7 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basically Complex means harder </li></ul>
8. 8. Formatting <ul><li>As with word processing you can change the way your spreadsheet looks. This is called altering the cell format </li></ul><ul><li>You can alter: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Column width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Row height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cell Alignment (left, right or centred) </li></ul></ul>Centre Aligned Cell <ul><ul><li>Right Aligned Cell </li></ul></ul>Left Aligned Cell
9. 9. Cell Attributes <ul><li>When you set up the attributes you are defining the format of the properties in that cell </li></ul>
10. 10. Other Features <ul><li>Cell Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to ‘lock’ cells so they can not be changed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insert Row & Column </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to add a new row or column. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are inserting them between two columns or rows then it will move the information in them over to the next row </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simply means copying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for copying formulas from one cell to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An example of this is the ‘fill down’ command </li></ul></ul>
11. 11. General Purpose Packages Spreadsheets
12. 12. Calculation <ul><li>Automatic Calculation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you change the value in a cell any other cells that affect that value will be changed automatically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual Calculation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Calculation can be turned off so that other cells can only be updated when you tell it to. </li></ul></ul>
13. 13. Charting <ul><li>Values and figures can be uninteresting and sometimes difficult to see trends. </li></ul><ul><li>Most spreadsheet packages allow the user to create charts based on these figures. </li></ul><ul><li>These can make presentations. </li></ul><ul><li>interesting and colourful </li></ul>
14. 15. Fully Labelled Charting
15. 16. Functions <ul><li>Predefined formulas that perform calculations, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUM, AVERAGE, MAXIMUM, MINIMUM & IF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These calculate from a range of cells using the : symbol </li></ul><ul><li>SUM(A2:A10) will add </li></ul><ul><li>up the numbers in cells </li></ul><ul><li>A2 to A10. </li></ul>
16. 17. Functions <ul><li>The IF function is used to make a decision depending on the values given. </li></ul><ul><li>For example this formula is in cell A10: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>=IF(D5>50, ‘You Win’,’You Lose’) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meaning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the value of cell D5 is greater than 50, then place ‘You Win’ in A10, otherwise place ‘You Lose’ in A10 </li></ul></ul>
17. 18. Referencing <ul><li>A relative reference will change when the formula it is in is replicated to other cells. </li></ul><ul><li>An absolute reference will not change when a formula is replicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute cell references are very useful for referring to specific cells in a spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>The \$ symbol is used to ‘keep’ the formula relating to a particular cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>=C5*\$B\$2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>=C6*\$B\$2… </li></ul></ul>
18. 19. General Purpose Packages Spreadsheets