Databases
What is a database? A database is a collection of information on a particular topic that is structured in some way. For ex...
Databases can either be stored  manually  (e.g. in a filing cabinet, as index cards or on paper)  Or they can be stored  e...
Why do we use a database? To access information quickly and easily.  To sort information in different ways e.g. alphabetic...
How are databases made up? Databases are organised in a particular way.    They are set out in  FILES ,  RECORDS  and  FIE...
File Third Year Pupils First Name:  Last Name: D.O.B Address:  Tel No:  Class:  Guidance: First Name:  Last Name: D.O.B Ad...
Types of Field <ul><li>Text – only letters eg abc, ABC </li></ul><ul><li>Numeric – only numbers eg 123, 890 </li></ul><ul>...
Descending  means biggest to smallest  i.e. z to a or 100 to 1. Ascending  means smallest to biggest  i.e. a to z or 1 to ...
Searching The main reason people create databases is so that they can search it for specific information.  When the comput...
<ul><li>Answering Database Questions </li></ul><ul><li>When answering a database question, go through the following points...
<ul><li>Database questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the following database extract: </li></ul><ul><li>First Name Lauren ...
<ul><li>Do a  simple search  on the field  class  for  4A. </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Do a  complex search  first on the field ...
Searching A Database (Example) 1 2 Skiing Interests 35 Age Fair Hair 1.65 Height (m) Lawyer Occupation Glasgow Area F Sex ...
Search 1 <ul><li>Find an  accountant  from  Glasgow : </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Search </li></ul><ul><li>On Occupation = A...
Search 2 <ul><li>Find  Male  who likes to  ski  and is taller than  1.65m : </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Search </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>More Database Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the following database extract: </li></ul><ul><li>Field Names S...
Answers: Field Names Sample Data Make Vauxhall Model Astra Colour Silver Year 1998 <ul><li>Do a  simple search  on the fie...
Searching for Information on CD-ROM or the Internet <ul><li>Databases are now readily available on both CD-ROM/ DVD-ROM an...
Searching a CD-ROM Database <ul><li>The way in which we search these databases is different to the way we would search a c...
Searching an online database <ul><li>Online databases have become more common over the past few years. </li></ul>
Searching an online database <ul><li>Internet search engines such as Yahoo or Google allow us to carry out simple and adva...
<ul><li>Why use a Computerised system? </li></ul><ul><li>There are many disadvantages to using a manual system: </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Computerised records solve these problems because computer databases: </li></ul><ul><li>Take up little space </li>...
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Databases Foundation General

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Databases Foundation General

  1. 1. Databases
  2. 2. What is a database? A database is a collection of information on a particular topic that is structured in some way. For example you could have a database on football teams, CD collection or books.
  3. 3. Databases can either be stored manually (e.g. in a filing cabinet, as index cards or on paper) Or they can be stored electronically (on the computer!) A telephone book is an example of a manual database that keeps information on peoples names, addresses and telephone numbers.
  4. 4. Why do we use a database? To access information quickly and easily. To sort information in different ways e.g. alphabetical or ascending or descending. We can also search the database for specific pieces of data e.g. a persons name or the author of a certain books etc.
  5. 5. How are databases made up? Databases are organised in a particular way.   They are set out in FILES , RECORDS and FIELDS .   A FILE is a collection of structured information on a specific topic.   A RECORD is a collection of structured information on a particular person or thing.   A FIELD is a single piece of data which is contained in each record. Records are made up of, usually, 2 or more fields.
  6. 6. File Third Year Pupils First Name: Last Name: D.O.B Address: Tel No: Class: Guidance: First Name: Last Name: D.O.B Address: Tel No: Class: Guidance: Fields Record School Database First Name: Last Name: D.O.B Address: Tel No: Class: Guidance:
  7. 7. Types of Field <ul><li>Text – only letters eg abc, ABC </li></ul><ul><li>Numeric – only numbers eg 123, 890 </li></ul><ul><li>Date – a formatted date eg 12/12/00 </li></ul><ul><li>Time – a formatted time eg 1340 hours </li></ul>
  8. 8. Descending means biggest to smallest i.e. z to a or 100 to 1. Ascending means smallest to biggest i.e. a to z or 1 to 100. Sorting When you sort the database you are putting the information into some kind of order. The most common way to sort text in a database is to put it into alphabetical order . When we sort we are either putting data into ascending or descending order.
  9. 9. Searching The main reason people create databases is so that they can search it for specific information. When the computer searches the database it looks at the contents of particular fields. There are 2 ways of searching: Simple search – searching on one field Complex search – searching on more than one field
  10. 10. <ul><li>Answering Database Questions </li></ul><ul><li>When answering a database question, go through the following points: </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a simple search or complex search? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the first field you want to search on? </li></ul><ul><li>In a complex search, what is the second field you want to search on? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the info have to be in a certain order? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the info have to be printed? </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Database questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the following database extract: </li></ul><ul><li>First Name Lauren </li></ul><ul><li>Surname Duffy </li></ul><ul><li>Class 4E </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Birth 24 th Feb </li></ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher wants a list of all the pupils in 4A, how would she do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher wants a list of all pupils in 4C whose surname is QUINN,how would she do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher wants an alphabetical list of pupils with surname Jones born on 30 th July, how would she do this?. </li></ul>Fields
  12. 12. <ul><li>Do a simple search on the field class for 4A. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Do a complex search first on the field class for 4C then on the field surname for Quinn. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Do a complex search first on the field surname for Jones then on the field date of birth for 30 th July then SORT into alphabetical order. </li></ul>Answers: Field Names: Sample Data: First Name Lauren Surname Duffy Class 4E Date of Birth 24 th Feb
  13. 13. Searching A Database (Example) 1 2 Skiing Interests 35 Age Fair Hair 1.65 Height (m) Lawyer Occupation Glasgow Area F Sex Lila Lonely Name 3234 Member NO.
  14. 14. Search 1 <ul><li>Find an accountant from Glasgow : </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Search </li></ul><ul><li>On Occupation = Accountant </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>On Area = Glasgow </li></ul>
  15. 15. Search 2 <ul><li>Find Male who likes to ski and is taller than 1.65m : </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Search </li></ul><ul><li>On Interests =Skiing </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>On Height > 1.65 </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Sex = Male </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>More Database Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the following database extract: </li></ul><ul><li>Field Names Sample Data </li></ul><ul><li>Make Vauxhall </li></ul><ul><li>Model Astra </li></ul><ul><li>Colour Silver </li></ul><ul><li>Year 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>How would you get a list of all the cars made by MAZDA? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you get a list of all the cars made by FORD in 1999? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you get an alphabetical list of all the cars that are BLACK and made by ROVER. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Answers: Field Names Sample Data Make Vauxhall Model Astra Colour Silver Year 1998 <ul><li>Do a simple search on the field make for Mazda. </li></ul><ul><li>Do a complex search first on the field make for Ford then on the field year for 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>Do a complex search first on the field colour for black then on the field make for Rover then SORT the MAKE field into alphabetical order. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Searching for Information on CD-ROM or the Internet <ul><li>Databases are now readily available on both CD-ROM/ DVD-ROM and on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>There are quite a few databases available now on CD. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>encyclopaedia’s CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>(Encarta) (Encarta) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Searching a CD-ROM Database <ul><li>The way in which we search these databases is different to the way we would search a computer database. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple search on a CD-ROM. </li></ul><ul><li>Enter a single word into the search box and it would then display matching results. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Searching an online database <ul><li>Online databases have become more common over the past few years. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Searching an online database <ul><li>Internet search engines such as Yahoo or Google allow us to carry out simple and advanced searches online. </li></ul>Simple Search Type in word Advanced search
  22. 22. <ul><li>Why use a Computerised system? </li></ul><ul><li>There are many disadvantages to using a manual system: </li></ul><ul><li>records easily get lost, </li></ul><ul><li>only one person can use a record at one time </li></ul><ul><li>it takes up a lot space. </li></ul><ul><li>it can be slow to find things </li></ul><ul><li>records can only be in one order </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Computerised records solve these problems because computer databases: </li></ul><ul><li>Take up little space </li></ul><ul><li>Records don’t get lost </li></ul><ul><li>Fast to search </li></ul><ul><li>Can be sorted into any order </li></ul><ul><li>On a network many users can view a record at once. </li></ul>

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