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An overview of Howard Gardner's MI theory before existentialism was accepted, hence 81/2 intelligences.

An overview of Howard Gardner's MI theory before existentialism was accepted, hence 81/2 intelligences.

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  • According to the two-factor theory of intelligence, the performance of any intellectual act requires some combination of "g", which is available to the same individual to the same degree for all intellectual acts, and of "specific factors" or "s" which are specific to that act and which varies in strength from one act to another. If one knows how a person performs on one task that is highly saturated with "g", one can safely predict a similar level of performance for a another highly "g" saturated task. Prediction of performance on tasks with high "s" factors are less accurate. Nevertheless, since "g" pervades all tasks, prediction will be significantly better than chance. Thus, the most important information to have about a person's intellectual ability is an estimate of their "g".
  • Intelligence is made up of several primary mental abilities rather than a general and several specific factors.  He was among the first to propose and demonstrate that there are numerous ways in which a person can be intelligent.
  • Intelligence is made up of several primary mental abilities rather than a general and several specific factors.  He was among the first to propose and demonstrate that there are numerous ways in which a person can be intelligent.
  • Analytic or Componential Dimension - The methods people use to process and analyze information. Also known as the critical portion of intelligence. This aspect of intelligence can be further divided into Metacomponents, Performence components, and Knowledge-acquisition components. Metacomponents - This subcategory consists of the higher-order, or executive processes such as the planning, monitoring, and evaluation of the performance of a task. Performance Components - This category includes the execution of plans and strategies developed by the metacomponents, and plays a role in relating new information to novel situations through previously inferred concepts. Knowledge-acquisition Components - These lower-order processes consist of selective encoding, when relevent information is seperated from irrelevent, selective combination, when new and old information is organized, and selective comparison when new information is compared to previous cognitive constructs to update the metcomponents. Creative or Experiential Dimension - This aspect of intelligence examines how people approach new and unfamiliar tasks. This is also considered the insightful dimension to a person's intelligence. The experiential dimension can be further divided into two categories: novelty and automatization. Novelty - This is how a person reacts with the first exposure to a new scenario. Automatization - This is how a person handles repeated tasks, or practice. Practical or Contextual Dimension - The individual's intelligence as it relates to their environment/sociocultural context. How an individual adapts to their current environment, shapes their current environment, and selects a better environment all make up this practical aspect of intelligence. Also called "street smarts".
  • Thus for example introverted people would be more likely to write poetry or do crossword puzzles, whereas extroverted ones would be drawn to public speaking, debating, or television talk shows.
  • These uses of the materials of an intelligence are essentially trivial. What is not trivial is the capacity to think musically-for example, to draw on some of the structural features of the classical sonata form to illuminate aspects of concepts like evolution or historical cycles
  • On a practical level it suggests that any uniform educational approach is likely to serve only a small percentage of children optimally
  • Placement in new territory Spectrum classroom or childrens museum offer best assessment of intelligences
  • Without understanding evolution one cannot understand the world in which we live, beings today: the merits and perils of cloning; the advisability of genetic counseling, gene therapy, and varjous forms of eugenics believe that everyone ought to gain an understanding of rich works like Figaro--their intricate artistic languages, their portrayals of credible characters with deeply felt human emotions, relevant to the deCisions that we make as citizens: which arts, artists, and other creative individuals to support; how to support them; how best to encourage new works;. whether there are artistic creations that ought to be cen­sored or regulated, and, if so, by 'whom; whether the arts should be taught in school, after school, or not at all. can we participate knowledgeably in contem­porary discussions (and decisions) about the culpability of various indi­viduals and countries in the Second World War. Only with such understanding can we ponder the responsibility of human beings every­where to counter current efforts at genocide in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia and to bring the perpetrators to justice. The ways of thinking-the disci­plines_that have developed over the centuries represent. our best approach to almost any topic. Without such understanding, people can­not participate fully in the world in which tJ:1ey-we-live. One might! think that at least _ome understanding of these well­known topics is widespread. It is therefore sobering to discover that theory of evolution is considered to be false by one out of eve_y two Americans, and even by 20 percent of science educators. According to the noted scientist Carl Sagan, only 9 percent of Americans accept that humans have evolved slowly from more ancient beings without any divine interven_on. As for the Holocaust, about one-third of all Swedish high school students believe that the Holocaust did not take place. Comparable skepticism (if not outright denial) is expressed by various American groups; 20 percent of Amerjcans admit that they do not know what happened in the .Holocaust and 70 percent wish that they were bet­ter informed about it. Robert Simon, who teaches philosophy at Hamilton College, report_ that anywhere from 10 to 20 percent of his American students cannot bring themselves to say that the Nazi attempt at genocide was wrong.. .
  • 1. The Canon Pathway. Inspired by Allan Bloom, William Bennett, and Lynne Cheney. For those who desire a system that features traditional American (and Western) historical and artistic values. Students from all over the country will have read the same books and be able to discourse on American constitutional and historical issues. Citizens of France will most readily recognize and perhaps resonate to this pathway, though of course French "Canonites" will be reading Victor Hugo and Jean-Jacques Rousseau rather than James Madison and Mark Twain.. Similarly, other things being equal, for Brazil, Singapore, or South Africa. 2. The Multicultural Pathway. Inspired by James Banks, Jesse Jackson, Ronald Takaki, and many recently formed university departments. For those who desire a system that features the nature and identities of America's chief racial and ethnic groups. Students will study their own cultures and compare them with other groups, particularly those that have hitherto received unfair treatment at the hands of America's major­ity population. . 3. The Progressive Pathway. Inspired by John Dewey, Francis Parker, and Deborah Meier. For those who desire a system in which individual dif­ferences and growth patterns are respected, the curriculum grows out of community concerns, and democratic values are lived, not merely studied. Students will be genuinely involved in community activities and will seek to create and sustain a school community that embodies demo­cratic values. 4. The Technological Pathway. Inspired by Bill Gates, Louis Gerstner, and much of the American corpo_ate-financial world. For those who believe that America must maintain its competitive edge, and that mastery of technologies represents the best way to ensure a well-trained and flexi­ble workforce. In ,these schools, the particular curricula will be less important than immersion in a full range of technologies. Students will learn to use these technologies-for example, to create and critique media products. 5. The Socially Responsible Pathway. Inspired by assorted civic organiza­tions, including environmentally oriented groups, agencies that foster social entrepreneurship, and the Educators for Social Responsibility. For those who are conscious of the world's enormous social and economic problems and want to encourage the development of human beings who will be actively involved in improving the world. In these schools, the curricular focus falls on national and global issues that are susceptible to solution. 6. The Understanding Pathway. Inspired by Socrates and presented in this book. For those who believe that human beings have a desire to explore and to understand the most fundamental questions of existence, and that curricula ought to be organized around the tackling of these episte­mological concerns-familiarly, the true, the beautiful\\ and the good. Students in this pathway visit and revisit these classical questions, armed, in succession, with literacy skills, disciplinary skills, and the pos­sibility of multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary approaches. They exhibit their understandings publicly; they are motivated to ponder these ques­tions, and their interconnections, well after formal schooling has ended:

Transcript

  • 1. Howard GardnerMultiple Intelligences Theory – The application and misapplication of Gardner’s 8½ Intelligences.
  • 2. Intelligence• Early 1900’s Binet’s questions• 1912 Wilhelm Stern’s intelligence quotient• 1920’s Lewis Terman and Robert Yerkes Americanize the test
  • 3. Three Key Questions on Intelligence1. Is intelligence singular, or are there various, relatively independent intellectual faculties?2. Is Intelligence (intelligences) predominantly inherited?3. Are intelligence tests biased? p.17
  • 4. The “G” factor• Devised by English Psychologist, Charles Spearman in , in the early 20th Century(1904) “g”, or general intelligence, was a statistical measure of performance across a variety of tests.• Spearman found that the same people who did well in a variety of mental tests tended to use a part in their brains that he termed g. This g laid the foundation for the notion of a single intelligence, which enables us to undertake everyday mental tasks.
  • 5. M.I. InfluencesL.L. Thurstone 1887-1955Robert J. Sternberg 1949-
  • 6. M.I. InfluencesL.L. Thurstone 1887-1955 Thurstones Multiple-factors theory identified these seven primary mental abilities(1934):• Verbal Comprehension• Word Fluency• Number Facility• Spatial Visualization• Associative Memory• Perceptual Speed• Reasoning
  • 7. Sternberg’s Triarchic ModelThree different types of intelligences:3. Componential - analytic (or academic)5. Experiential - creative Robert J. Sternberg7. Contextual - practical (real world) (p.23) (1949 -) Cognitive Psychologist
  • 8. Uses of the Term Intelligence• A property of all human beings (All of us possess these 8 or 9 intelligences)• A dimension on which human beings differ (No two people—not even identical twins—possess exactly the same profile of intelligences)• The way in which one carries out a task in virtue of one’s goals (Joe may have a lot of musical intelligence but his interpretation of that piece made little sense to us)
  • 9. Why M.I.?Gardner- Born in 1943 Early realization of optimal human development Influenced by Erik Erikson and Jerome Bruner After meeting Bruner, decided to study cognitive-developmental psychology1969- Project Zero -Harvard
  • 10. Why M.I. II Project Zero – cognitive development in ordinary and gifted children Began working with brain injury patients at Boston University Aphasia Research Center Led to realization that the brain has developed a number of separate organs or information processing devices. This dual track research led to “Shattered Minds” and beginnings of “Frames Of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”
  • 11. Intelligence Defined- An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings- a biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture(34)
  • 12. An Intelligence’s Eight Criteria• The potential of isolation by brain damage• An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility• An identifiable core operation or set of operations• Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system
  • 13. An Intelligence’s Eight Criteria• A distinct developmental history, along with a definable set of expert “end state” performances• The existence of idiot savants, prodigies, and other exceptional people• Support from experimental psychological tasks• Support from psychometric findings
  • 14. Verbal-Linguistic IntelligenceThis intelligence involves the ability to read, write, and communicate withwords. A student may be expected to use their linguistic skills to communicatewhat they already know or what new information they have learned. Uses language effectively Language is means of expression and communication Poets Writers Journalists Researchers Book Reviewers
  • 15. Logical Mathematical IntelligenceThe capacity for inductive and deductive thinking and reasoning, aswell as the use of numbers and the recognition of abstract patterns Thinks logically Uses numbers effectively Solves problems scientifically Sees relationships and patterns between concepts and things Mathematicians Scientists
  • 16. Musical-Rhythmic IntelligenceThis intelligence gives a person the ability to make and compose music,sing, and use rhythm to learn. It is important to note that functional hearingis needed for a person to develop this intelligence in pitch and tone, but notso for rhythm. Uses music as a vehicle of expression Appreciates a variety of musical forms Sensitive to rhythm, melody, pitch Singers Musicians Composers
  • 17. Visual-Spatial IntelligenceThe ability to visualize objects and spatial dimensions, and createinternal images and pictures. This ability should not be thought ofonly in visual terms because Gardner believes that blind childrendevelop spatial intelligence. Thinks visually Orients oneself spatially Graphically represents visual and spatial ideas Artists Decorators Architects Surveyors Inventors Guides Graphic Designers
  • 18. Bodily-Kinesthetic IntelligenceThis intelligence encompasses the ability to use ones body movementsto solve problems. This may contradict the belief that mental and physicalactivities do not relate to each other. Uses one’s own body skillfully as means of expression Works skillfully to create or manipulate objects Dancers Actors Athletes Sculptors Surgeons Mechanics Craftspeople
  • 19. Interpersonal IntelligenceThis intelligence involves learners to use their social skills and goodcommunication skills with others. They may also show the abilityto empathize and understand other people. Responds appropriately and effectively to other people Understands others’ feelings Sales people Social directors Travel agents Admissions officers Leaders
  • 20. Intrapersonal IntelligenceThis intelligence is the ability to reflect, analyze, and contemplateproblems independently. A person may look upon himself or herselfto assess ones own feelings and motivations. Accurately knows one’s self Aware of one’s strengths, motivations, goals, and feelings Entrepreneurs Therapists
  • 21. Naturalist IntelligenceThe ability to recognize plants, animals, and other parts of the naturalenvironment (clouds, rocks). Also, the ability to make distinctions inthe natural world and the environment and also among man-madeobjects. Recognizes members and non-members of groups Recognizes species Distinguishes different species Comfortable in the world of Organisms Hunters Botanists Anatomists Geologists Jewelers
  • 22. Existentialist IntelligenceThe proclivity to pose (and ponder) questions about life,death, and ultimate realities. Attuned to religious and spiritual ideas Rabbi, Hazan Meditators Volunteers in synagogues, Jewish camps
  • 23. Myth 1Now that there are eight or nineintelligences, researchers can create avariety of test to secure the associatedscores.
  • 24. Reality 1 MI theory is a critique of the standard psychometric approach. Therefore, having a battery of tests is not consistent with the theory.Gardner – Testing should be conducted in a comfortable setting with materials (and cultural roles) that are familiar to the individual.Ideally – Observance of a child in a children’s museum for several hours
  • 25. Myth 2An intelligence is the same as a learningstyle, a cognitive style, or a working style.
  • 26. Reality 2 Styles are approaches that can be applied equally to an indefinite range of content. In contrast an intelligence is a capacity that is geared to specific content in the world.Gardner – “Perhaps the decision about how to use one’s favored intelligences reflects one’s preferred style.”(p.88)
  • 27. Myth 3By broadening the term intelligence toinclude a broad spectrumof psychologicalconstructs, MI theoryrenders the term andits typical connotationsuseless.
  • 28. Reality 3 On the contrary, the standard definition of intelligence narrowly constricts our view by treating a certain form of scholastic performance as if it encompassed the range of human capacities and by engendering disdain for those who happen not to score well on a particular psychometric instrument.Gardner – “…it is a more sustainable view of human cognition than does posting a single bell curve of intellectual potency.” (p.89)
  • 29. Myth 4There is a single “approved” educationalapproach based on MI theory.
  • 30. Reality 4MI theory is not an educational prescription. Educators are in the best position to determine whether and to what extent MI theory should guide their practice.Gardner – “I am leery of implementations such as the following:
  • 31. Reality 4 cont.•Attempting to teach all concepts of subjects using all of theintelligences.To be sure, most topics can be approached in varied ways, butapplying ascattershot approach to each topic is a waste of effort and time•Believing that going through certain motions activates or exercisesspecific intelligences.•Using intelligences primarily as mnemonic devices.•Labeling people in terms of “their” intelligences (can impede learning).
  • 32. How Should MI Work?Gardner believes that MI theory should meet threepropositions: 1. We are not all the same. 2. We do not all have the same kinds of minds (not all distinct points on a single bell curve). 3. Education works most effectively if thesedifferences are taken into account rather thandenied or ignored
  • 33. Do MI focused schools work?SUMIT project41 schools around the United States 78% reported positive standardized test outcomes(63% attribution to MI) 78% reported improved performances by students with learning difficulties 80% reported improvement in parent participation (75% attribution to MI) 81% reported improved student discipline (67% attribution to MI) Findings based on empirical data
  • 34. Gardner’s View on Content “I value conceptual understanding over accumulation of facts. I place little stock in a canon or a required core curriculum; I believe that understanding can be achieved from a variety of materials and depends upon in-depth exploration of a limited number of topics rather than on breadth of coverage. By the same token, I have a low regard for the use of standardized short-answer machine scored instruments. I much prefer occasions where students can perform their understandings publicly, receive relevant critiques, and go on to enhance their performances and their understandings.” (p.114)
  • 35. The Spectrum Classroom• Mid 1980’s• Stocked with materials to activate the intelligences• Initially geared to 4-7 year olds• Takes the assessment to the children
  • 36. Steps For Establishing an MI Environment• Plan and launch activities, practices, or programs that grow out of immersion in the world of MI theory and approaches• Visit institutions that are already implementing MI ideas• Attend conferences that feature MI ideas• Learn more about MI theory and practices• Join a network of schools• Form study groups
  • 37. Contribution to Education“Individually configured education iscompatible with a required standardcurriculum.”(p.152)
  • 38. Individually Configured Education I.C.E. Ooh, my brain hurts!• Cull information about how a particular child learns• Allow students to remain with the same teacher for several years• Assign students and teachers flexibly• Have an effective information- transmission system in the school• Have older students work with younger students
  • 39. Belief on Curriculum“Education in our time shouldprovide the basis forenhanced understanding ofour several worlds-thephysical world, the biologicalworld, the world of humanbeings, the world of humanartifacts, and the world of theself.” (p. 158)
  • 40. Truth, Beauty, and Goodness The content of a quality education should contain a good understanding of:EvolutionMusic of MozartThe Holocaust
  • 41. Six Possible Pathways to Education1. The Canon Pathway. Inspired by Allan Bloom, William Bennett, and Lynne Cheney.2. The Multicultural Pathway. Inspired by James Banks, Jesse Jackson, Ronald Takaki, and many recently formed university departments. .3. The Progressive Pathway. Inspired by John Dewey, Francis Parker, and Deborah Meier.4. The Technological Pathway. Inspired by Bill Gates, Louis Gerstner, and much of the American corpo_ate-financial world.5. The Socially Responsible Pathway. Inspired by assorted civic organiza- tions, including environmentally oriented groups, agencies that foster social entrepreneurship, and the Educators for Social Responsibility.6. The Understanding Pathway. Inspired by Socrates and presented in this book. For those who believe that human beings have a desire to explore and to understand the most fundamental questions of existence, and that curricula ought to be organized around the tackling of these episte-mological concerns-familiarly, the true, the beautiful and the good.