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Howard GardnerMultiple Intelligences Theory – The application and misapplication of Gardner’s 8½ Intelligences.
Intelligence• Early 1900’s Binet’s questions• 1912 Wilhelm Stern’s intelligence quotient• 1920’s Lewis Terman and Robert Yerkes Americanize the test
Three Key Questions on Intelligence1. Is intelligence singular, or are there various, relatively independent intellectual faculties?2. Is Intelligence (intelligences) predominantly inherited?3. Are intelligence tests biased? p.17
The “G” factor• Devised by English Psychologist, Charles Spearman in , in the early 20th Century(1904) “g”, or general intelligence, was a statistical measure of performance across a variety of tests.• Spearman found that the same people who did well in a variety of mental tests tended to use a part in their brains that he termed g. This g laid the foundation for the notion of a single intelligence, which enables us to undertake everyday mental tasks.
M.I. InfluencesL.L. Thurstone 1887-1955Robert J. Sternberg 1949-
M.I. InfluencesL.L. Thurstone 1887-1955 Thurstones Multiple-factors theory identified these seven primary mental abilities(1934):• Verbal Comprehension• Word Fluency• Number Facility• Spatial Visualization• Associative Memory• Perceptual Speed• Reasoning
Sternberg’s Triarchic ModelThree different types of intelligences:3. Componential - analytic (or academic)5. Experiential - creative Robert J. Sternberg7. Contextual - practical (real world) (p.23) (1949 -) Cognitive Psychologist
Uses of the Term Intelligence• A property of all human beings (All of us possess these 8 or 9 intelligences)• A dimension on which human beings differ (No two people—not even identical twins—possess exactly the same profile of intelligences)• The way in which one carries out a task in virtue of one’s goals (Joe may have a lot of musical intelligence but his interpretation of that piece made little sense to us)
Why M.I.?Gardner- Born in 1943 Early realization of optimal human development Influenced by Erik Erikson and Jerome Bruner After meeting Bruner, decided to study cognitive-developmental psychology1969- Project Zero -Harvard
Why M.I. II Project Zero – cognitive development in ordinary and gifted children Began working with brain injury patients at Boston University Aphasia Research Center Led to realization that the brain has developed a number of separate organs or information processing devices. This dual track research led to “Shattered Minds” and beginnings of “Frames Of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”
Intelligence Defined- An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings- a biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture(34)
An Intelligence’s Eight Criteria• The potential of isolation by brain damage• An evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility• An identifiable core operation or set of operations• Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system
An Intelligence’s Eight Criteria• A distinct developmental history, along with a definable set of expert “end state” performances• The existence of idiot savants, prodigies, and other exceptional people• Support from experimental psychological tasks• Support from psychometric findings
Verbal-Linguistic IntelligenceThis intelligence involves the ability to read, write, and communicate withwords. A student may be expected to use their linguistic skills to communicatewhat they already know or what new information they have learned. Uses language effectively Language is means of expression and communication Poets Writers Journalists Researchers Book Reviewers
Logical Mathematical IntelligenceThe capacity for inductive and deductive thinking and reasoning, aswell as the use of numbers and the recognition of abstract patterns Thinks logically Uses numbers effectively Solves problems scientifically Sees relationships and patterns between concepts and things Mathematicians Scientists
Musical-Rhythmic IntelligenceThis intelligence gives a person the ability to make and compose music,sing, and use rhythm to learn. It is important to note that functional hearingis needed for a person to develop this intelligence in pitch and tone, but notso for rhythm. Uses music as a vehicle of expression Appreciates a variety of musical forms Sensitive to rhythm, melody, pitch Singers Musicians Composers
Visual-Spatial IntelligenceThe ability to visualize objects and spatial dimensions, and createinternal images and pictures. This ability should not be thought ofonly in visual terms because Gardner believes that blind childrendevelop spatial intelligence. Thinks visually Orients oneself spatially Graphically represents visual and spatial ideas Artists Decorators Architects Surveyors Inventors Guides Graphic Designers
Bodily-Kinesthetic IntelligenceThis intelligence encompasses the ability to use ones body movementsto solve problems. This may contradict the belief that mental and physicalactivities do not relate to each other. Uses one’s own body skillfully as means of expression Works skillfully to create or manipulate objects Dancers Actors Athletes Sculptors Surgeons Mechanics Craftspeople
Interpersonal IntelligenceThis intelligence involves learners to use their social skills and goodcommunication skills with others. They may also show the abilityto empathize and understand other people. Responds appropriately and effectively to other people Understands others’ feelings Sales people Social directors Travel agents Admissions officers Leaders
Intrapersonal IntelligenceThis intelligence is the ability to reflect, analyze, and contemplateproblems independently. A person may look upon himself or herselfto assess ones own feelings and motivations. Accurately knows one’s self Aware of one’s strengths, motivations, goals, and feelings Entrepreneurs Therapists
Naturalist IntelligenceThe ability to recognize plants, animals, and other parts of the naturalenvironment (clouds, rocks). Also, the ability to make distinctions inthe natural world and the environment and also among man-madeobjects. Recognizes members and non-members of groups Recognizes species Distinguishes different species Comfortable in the world of Organisms Hunters Botanists Anatomists Geologists Jewelers
Existentialist IntelligenceThe proclivity to pose (and ponder) questions about life,death, and ultimate realities. Attuned to religious and spiritual ideas Rabbi, Hazan Meditators Volunteers in synagogues, Jewish camps
Myth 1Now that there are eight or nineintelligences, researchers can create avariety of test to secure the associatedscores.
Reality 1 MI theory is a critique of the standard psychometric approach. Therefore, having a battery of tests is not consistent with the theory.Gardner – Testing should be conducted in a comfortable setting with materials (and cultural roles) that are familiar to the individual.Ideally – Observance of a child in a children’s museum for several hours
Myth 2An intelligence is the same as a learningstyle, a cognitive style, or a working style.
Reality 2 Styles are approaches that can be applied equally to an indefinite range of content. In contrast an intelligence is a capacity that is geared to specific content in the world.Gardner – “Perhaps the decision about how to use one’s favored intelligences reflects one’s preferred style.”(p.88)
Myth 3By broadening the term intelligence toinclude a broad spectrumof psychologicalconstructs, MI theoryrenders the term andits typical connotationsuseless.
Reality 3 On the contrary, the standard definition of intelligence narrowly constricts our view by treating a certain form of scholastic performance as if it encompassed the range of human capacities and by engendering disdain for those who happen not to score well on a particular psychometric instrument.Gardner – “…it is a more sustainable view of human cognition than does posting a single bell curve of intellectual potency.” (p.89)
Myth 4There is a single “approved” educationalapproach based on MI theory.
Reality 4MI theory is not an educational prescription. Educators are in the best position to determine whether and to what extent MI theory should guide their practice.Gardner – “I am leery of implementations such as the following:
Reality 4 cont.•Attempting to teach all concepts of subjects using all of theintelligences.To be sure, most topics can be approached in varied ways, butapplying ascattershot approach to each topic is a waste of effort and time•Believing that going through certain motions activates or exercisesspecific intelligences.•Using intelligences primarily as mnemonic devices.•Labeling people in terms of “their” intelligences (can impede learning).
How Should MI Work?Gardner believes that MI theory should meet threepropositions: 1. We are not all the same. 2. We do not all have the same kinds of minds (not all distinct points on a single bell curve). 3. Education works most effectively if thesedifferences are taken into account rather thandenied or ignored
Do MI focused schools work?SUMIT project41 schools around the United States 78% reported positive standardized test outcomes(63% attribution to MI) 78% reported improved performances by students with learning difficulties 80% reported improvement in parent participation (75% attribution to MI) 81% reported improved student discipline (67% attribution to MI) Findings based on empirical data
Gardner’s View on Content “I value conceptual understanding over accumulation of facts. I place little stock in a canon or a required core curriculum; I believe that understanding can be achieved from a variety of materials and depends upon in-depth exploration of a limited number of topics rather than on breadth of coverage. By the same token, I have a low regard for the use of standardized short-answer machine scored instruments. I much prefer occasions where students can perform their understandings publicly, receive relevant critiques, and go on to enhance their performances and their understandings.” (p.114)
The Spectrum Classroom• Mid 1980’s• Stocked with materials to activate the intelligences• Initially geared to 4-7 year olds• Takes the assessment to the children
Steps For Establishing an MI Environment• Plan and launch activities, practices, or programs that grow out of immersion in the world of MI theory and approaches• Visit institutions that are already implementing MI ideas• Attend conferences that feature MI ideas• Learn more about MI theory and practices• Join a network of schools• Form study groups
Contribution to Education“Individually configured education iscompatible with a required standardcurriculum.”(p.152)
Individually Configured Education I.C.E. Ooh, my brain hurts!• Cull information about how a particular child learns• Allow students to remain with the same teacher for several years• Assign students and teachers flexibly• Have an effective information- transmission system in the school• Have older students work with younger students
Belief on Curriculum“Education in our time shouldprovide the basis forenhanced understanding ofour several worlds-thephysical world, the biologicalworld, the world of humanbeings, the world of humanartifacts, and the world of theself.” (p. 158)
Truth, Beauty, and Goodness The content of a quality education should contain a good understanding of:EvolutionMusic of MozartThe Holocaust
Six Possible Pathways to Education1. The Canon Pathway. Inspired by Allan Bloom, William Bennett, and Lynne Cheney.2. The Multicultural Pathway. Inspired by James Banks, Jesse Jackson, Ronald Takaki, and many recently formed university departments. .3. The Progressive Pathway. Inspired by John Dewey, Francis Parker, and Deborah Meier.4. The Technological Pathway. Inspired by Bill Gates, Louis Gerstner, and much of the American corpo_ate-financial world.5. The Socially Responsible Pathway. Inspired by assorted civic organiza- tions, including environmentally oriented groups, agencies that foster social entrepreneurship, and the Educators for Social Responsibility.6. The Understanding Pathway. Inspired by Socrates and presented in this book. For those who believe that human beings have a desire to explore and to understand the most fundamental questions of existence, and that curricula ought to be organized around the tackling of these episte-mological concerns-familiarly, the true, the beautiful and the good.