The objective of this lecture is to present some scientific facts about terrorism, so that teachers can educate the next generation, to understand terrorism and help to prevent terrorism. This is a template lecture for teachers. Please feel free to add or take out any slides. For example, you might want to include information about terrorism in your country, rather than the examples used in this lecture. The lecture is designed to be apolitical. The objectives are to 1) provide information to students about terrorism in general, 2) to show that terrorism has had a long history, 3) to demonstrate that terrorism has taken place in all areas of the world and 4 to demonstrate that terrorism although scaring many people is very rare. We must be concerned about terrorism, however, we cannot be paralyzed due to fear.
Terrorism is a political act designed by groups to have their message heard. Arthur H. Garrison, How the World Changed: a History of the Development of Terrorism, presented at Delaware criminal Justice Council Annual Retreat, Oct 28-29, 2001 http://www.state.de.us/cjc/history.ppt
Terror in many ways has been the weapon of groups who want their message heard, and want a political change, but do not feel that they have a way to be heard or have a voice. Terrorism is viewed as a means to be heard. Arthur H. Garrison, How the World Changed: a History of the Development of Terrorism, presented at Delaware criminal Justice Council Annual Retreat, Oct 28-29, 2001 http://www.state.de.us/cjc/history.ppt
Terrorism has been viewed as honorable by the side who practices it. It is viewed as a crime against humanity by the victims of the countries attacked. Arthur H. Garrison, How the World Changed: a History of the Development of Terrorism, presented at Delaware criminal Justice Council Annual Retreat, Oct 28-29, 2001 http://www.state.de.us/cjc/history.ppt
. Governments will sometimes try to suppress dissent. In the Military regime in Argentina in the 1960, young protestors sometimes even your age would sometimes “disappear” because of their views. The goal was to eliminate dissent, and maintain power. Arthur H. Garrison, How the World Changed: a History of the Development of Terrorism, presented at Delaware criminal Justice Council Annual Retreat, Oct 28-29, 2001 http://www.state.de.us/cjc/history.ppt
Anarchists are those who rebel against the ruling power. One of their tools has been the killing of public officials, e.g. the killing of a president or ruler. Terrorism has become a statement. Arthur H. Garrison, How the World Changed: a History of the Development of Terrorism, presented at Delaware criminal Justice Council Annual Retreat, Oct 28-29, 2001 http://www.state.de.us/cjc/history.ppt
Arthur H. Garrison, How the World Changed: a History of the Development of Terrorism, presented at Delaware criminal Justice Council Annual Retreat, Oct 28-29, 2001 http://www.state.de.us/cjc/history.ppt
There has been much discussion of Asymmetric Warfare. This is where a superior power is confronted with an unconventional, much smaller enemy. However, the enemy has a fervent belief in a cause, but attacks using new, often never used before approaches often to the surprise of the dominant force. Arthur H. Garrison, How the World Changed: a History of the Development of Terrorism, presented at Delaware criminal Justice Council Annual Retreat, Oct 28-29, 2001 http://www.state.de.us/cjc/history.ppt
We were surprised on Sept. 11. However, it is very important to recognize that terrorism is not new, and it’s primary goal is not to kill, but to communicate a message. Terrorism is a form of violence, and has been used throughout history. Terrorism most certainly has a psychological impact, and is a very powerful political act. It gets people heard. Arthur H. Garrison, How the World Changed: a History of the Development of Terrorism, presented at Delaware criminal Justice Council Annual Retreat, Oct 28-29, 2001 http://www.state.de.us/cjc/history.ppt
The problem is that few recognize the time course of terrorism. There is a long, protracted time period of planning, followed by a short execution phase and short diagnosis phase. The terrorist on Sept. 11 prepared for almost 5 years before finally attacking. The time between execution and first death is typically small. For example, if a nuclear devise were to be detonated, death would arise within seconds. We want to be able to intervene to prevent children and adults from experiencing a terrorist attack, and death.
Just because of its uncertainty, it is hard to collect unbiased data on terrorism and it is hard to propose specific prevention measures. Here we present the general approaches of prevention from the epidemiological and public health point of view.
Recent Trends in Domestic and International Terrorism, the Center for National Security Studies, http://nsi.org/Library/Terrorism/tertrend.html
Chemicals have also been used in terrorist attacks. Recent Trends in Domestic and International Terrorism, the Center for National Security Studies, http://nsi.org/Library/Terrorism/tertrend.html
Source:Disaster and hospital functions, Genro Ochi M.D., Ph.D. http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec0581/016.htm Picture from: www.jal.co.jp/information/ branch/index-e.html
Source: Chemical and Biological Terrorism, an overview of the threat. Phillip L. Coule, M.D. http://www.pemba.utk.edu/bt101/Chem%20and%20Biol%20Terrorism-%20Dr.%20Coule.ppt
The history of bioterrorism goes back a very long time. The first record of bioterrorism was 600 years ago. Source: Chemical and Biological Terrorism, an overview of the threat. Phillip L. Coule, M.D. http://www.pemba.utk.edu/bt101/Chem%20and%20Biol%20Terrorism-%20Dr.%20Coule.ppt World-wide biologic warfare is not new. As early as the 14 th century, plague infested corpses were used as weapons.
Source: Chemical and Biological Terrorism, an overview of the threat. Phillip L. Coule, M.D. http://www.pemba.utk.edu/bt101/Chem%20and%20Biol%20Terrorism-%20Dr.%20Coule.ppt In the United States at the time of the French and Indian War, the British provided tainted blankets to Indians with the goal of disabling the opposing forces.
Source: the History of Bioterrorism. Fred T. Muwanga M.D. Msc Reasons for the use of bioterrorism was varied, and not much different for other weapons systems. A primary reason that they were used is that in general the weapon system was inexpensive, and could wreak havoc on an enemy not only as a result of morbidity, but also fear. These systems have some major disadvantages, however, in that one needed a high level of expertise in order to produce them. Also, targeting the systems is most difficult, thus there was the fear of wiping out ones own troops when attacking the enemy.
Bioterrorism can be attacked from several different levels. This presents the public health perspective whereby the response begins at the finding of the first case. A complimentary view is that of law enforcement where prevention begins before any event takes place, in the 5 year period of preparation. This could be a simple as identifying people who want to take flying lessons but who do not want to learn how to land, or those purchasing Anthrax from web sites. Both of these approaches have to go hand and hand to prevent attacks.
Terrorist acts are episodic, not continuous. Usually death from terrorism only occupies a very small proportion in all causes of deaths. When serious attack occurs, like in 2001, the death rate may be increased a lot. Total International Terrorist Attacks, 1981-2000. Department of State Publication, Office of the Secretary of State, Released by the Office of the Coordinator for Counter terrorism, April 2001. http://www.usis.usemb.se/terror/rpt2000/totaluscasualties.html * Used projected data of year 2000 National Vital Statistics Report, Vol.49 No. 12, Oct 9, 2001 National mortality data: http://wonder.cdc.gov/mortICD9J.shtml Death from September 11 th : http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/05/30/rec.wtc.remains/index.html
The purpose of this slide is to have some general comparison between the risk of terrorism attack and that of other more familiar causes, so that we can have a general feeling of the level of the risk of terrorism. Data on other risks is adopted from the BMA Guide to Living with Risk. British Medical Association, Penguin Books, 1987. It is not scientifically correct to compare the general estimate on risks and the specific death rate of one cause from one year. Also, lightning may be more predictable and random than terrorism attack. Again, this slide just wants to show the general position of the risk of terrorism attack. The point is : there are more important health threats to worry about and we can do something about it. If you want to compare the death rate from different causes, the CDC and WHO web site can provide more information. The following slide is an example from USA Death rate of terrorism was calculated from the data of U.S. population and the deaths from terrorism Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex: April 1, 1990 to July 1, 1999, with Short-Term Projection to November 1, 2000. http://eire.census.gov/popest/archives/national/nation2/intfile2-1.txt http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/05/30/rec.wtc.remains/index.html
* Age adjusted death rate in 2000. National Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 49, No. 12, Oct 9, 2001.
It is important to put risk in context. Most people would think the great risk is a pilot, police man, or fire man. The occupation at great risk is that of President of the US where 3/44 presidents have died from terrorists. The risk for a president of the US, it over 50 million times great than for a student in a classroom.
The risk of dying from terrorism was even lower than that from hitting by lightening. Assume how surprised you will be, if someone tell you that your chance of hitting by lightening will be as high as that of homicide.
Sources: Information on how to help children understand the terrorist attacks: Suggestions for Adults: Talking and Thinking with Children About the Terrorist Attacks http://www.ed.gov/inits/september11/adults.html Suggestions for Educators: Meeting the Needs of Students http://www.ed.gov/inits/september11/educators.html A Letter to Elementary School Students from First Lady Laura Bush http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/09/letter2.html A Letter to Middle and High School Students from First Lady Laura Bush http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/09/letter1.html President Bush Participates in Launch of Friendship Through Education Consortium http://www.friendshipthrougheducation.org/ School Officials Urged to Prevent Harassment of Muslim and Arab-American Students http://www.ed.gov/PressReleases/09-2001/09192001c.html Where you can find additional information and resources: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry http://www.aacap.org/ American Counseling Association http://www.counseling.org American Psychological Association Online: Help with Trauma http://www.apa.org/psychnet/coverage.html Emergency Services and Disaster Relief Branch, Center for Mental Health http://www.mentalhealth.org/cmhs/emergencyservices/ Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Violence and Disasters http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/violence.cfm Helping Children Cope with Disaster, National Parent Information Network http://npin.org/library/2001/n00563/n00563.html High Schools for Heroes http://www.hs4heroes.org National Association of School Psychologists http://www.nasponline.org National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder http://www.ncptsd.org/what_is_new.html Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Trauma, Disasters, and Violence http://www.nimh.nih.gov/anxiety/ptsdmenu.cfm Talking with Children When Disaster Strikes http://www.tpt.org/TPTspecial_edition/walsh.html Ten Tips to Help Your Kids Deal with Violence, Parenting Press http://www.parentingpress.com/resp_10_tips.html Terrorism and Children, Purdue University Extension http://www.ces.purdue.edu/terrorism/children/index.html University of Oklahoma, Department of Pediatrics http://peds.ouhsc.edu/ U.S. Government Information and Resources in Response to September 11th Events http://www.firstgov.gov/featured/usgresponse.html
Terrorism What is it? Where does it come from? Why is it used? How can we prevent it? What do we fear about Terrorism?
Domestic terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government without foreign involvement. Oklahoma City is a primary example.
International terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States. Sept. 11 is an example of International Terrorism.
Spreading of radioactive materials through ventilation system or explosion
Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and cause leakage of radioactive materials
Detonate a nuclear weapon
No use of nuclear material for non-military terrorism has ever occurred
Proportion of death from terrorism in total death in the United States Average death per year From terrorism From all causes Proportion (%) 1990’s 8 2534203 0.0003 2001 2893 2404624 0.12
Risk of Dying Penguin Books, 1987 Smoking 10 cigarettes a day One in 200 All natural causes age 40 One in 850 Road accident One in 8,000 Playing soccer One in 25,000 Homicide One in 100,000 Terrorism attack in 2001 One in 100,000 Hit by lightning One in 10,000,000 Terrorism attack in 1990’s One in 50,000,000
Death Rate of Various Causes in 2000 USA and that from Terrorism Heart disease* One in 400 Cancer * One in 500 Cerebrovascular diseases* One in 2,000 Accidents * One in 3,000 Diabetes* One in 4,000 Suicide* One in 10,000 Homicide* One in 20,000 Terrorism in 2001 One in 100,000 Terrorism in 1990’s One in 50,000,000
What occupation has had the greatest risk of death from Terrorism?
Why did terrorism draw considerable attention in 2001?
The risk of dying from terrorism was extremely low in 1990’s, and was still relatively low compared with some diseases in 2001
But the death rate increased by 500 times in 2001 due to Sept. 11
Overall the death rate of terrorism has not been high
Despite the low risk, shock, surprise and fear engulfed the United States and world