Signs & Symbols
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Signs & Symbols

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Signs & Symbols Signs & Symbols Presentation Transcript

  • Graphic Communication Signs & Symbols
  • Signs
      • Signs are used to convey information in pictorial form.
      • This has many advantages over written instructions.
      • People who talk different languages can understand the same common signs.
      • Instructions for some tasks can be clearer when given as drawings.
  • Signs & Symbols
      • Signs & symbols are commonly used in everyday situations.
      • Roadsigns, information, engineering symbols, flow charts and circuit diagrams are types of drawings that you will need to know about for your exams.
  • Signs
      • There are different families of signs.
      • These are:
        • mandatory signs
        • prohibition signs
        • warning signs
        • safety signs
        • danger signs
  • Signs - Mandatory signs
      • These signs are blue in colour.
      • They give a positive instruction. In other words they tell you what to do rather than what not to do.
    Turn left
  • Signs - Prohibition signs
      • These signs are circular with a line across the circle.
      • They are red in colour.
    No smoking
  • Signs - Warning signs
      • These signs are yellow.
      • They are normally triangular but can be other shapes.
  • Signs - Safety Signs
      • These signs tell people of safe places to go or safe conditions.
  • Signs - Danger signs
      • These signs warn people of dangerous situations.
      • Commonly found on roadsigns and the back of long vehicles.
  • Signs
      • There are also general information signs used for a number of different purposes.
      • Some common signs are shown over the next few slides.
  • Signs - Kitemark
      • The Kitemark is used to tell consumers that the products they buy are safety tested to BSI standards.
      • All products sold must carry this Kitemark to be legally sold.
    The British Standards Kitemark.
  • Signs - Fragile
      • This mark is placed on breakable objects’ packaging to tell people handling the box to treat it with care.
    The Fragile symbol.
  • Signs - Recycled
      • This mark is placed on recycled objects to tell the consumer that they are buying a recycled product.
      • This is a big advertising point as companies like their products to be seen as being environmentally friendly.
  • Signs - Disabled
      • This is used to show disabled access.
  • Signs - male & female
      • These signs are used commonly to distinguish the male and female toilets.
  • Flow Charts
      • A Flow Chart is a method of showing the correct steps to follow in order to complete some type of problem.
      • There are some symbols used in flow charts to show certain processes that have to be done when completing the problem.
  • Flow Charts
      • These symbols are shown below.
    Process Decision Start/Stop Input/Output
  • Flow Charts
      • An example of a flow chart for a pelican crossing is shown:
    Start Has button been pushed? Amber light on Red light on Amber light flash Red light off Wait 2 Wait 10 Wait 5 Green light on Yes No
  • Circuit Diagrams
      • When electrical circuits are designed, standard symbols are used to tell people what the different components are.
      • This is so people from different countries and areas can understand the drawings.
      • It would be dangerous for a person to wire a circuit up incorrectly simply because they did not understand the drawing!
  • Circuit Diagrams
      • These symbols are drawn to British Standards.
      • You have to know some of them. These are drawn over the next two slides.
    junctions cross-overs switch (general symbol)
  • Circuit Diagrams battery bulb electric bell microphone loudspeaker
  • Drawing Symbols
      • Drawings use many different line types to show different parts of an object.
      • These are standardised so that anyone can understand what is meant by a particular line type regardless of where they come from.
  • Drawing Symbols
      • Orthographic drawings are drawn in Third Angle Projection.
      • This is a standard drawing layout covered in the tutorial on orthographic projection where the 3 views are drawn in the direction you are looking at them.
  • Drawing Symbols
      • The 3rd Angle Projection symbol is shown below.
      • This is normally included on a drawing to tell people the standard it is drawn in.
  • Drawing Symbols
      • Different line types used include:
        • outlines
        • projection lines
        • hidden detail
        • centre lines
        • cutting planes
        • fold lines
  • Drawing Symbols - Outlines
      • Outlines are used to show the outline of an object.
      • They are thicker than projection lines.
      • Drawn at 0.7mm thick.
  • Drawing Symbols - Projection Lines
      • Projection lines are used to help construct a drawing.
      • They are not part of the outline of the drawing and are drawn lightly and thin.
  • Drawing Symbols - Hidden Detail
      • Hidden detail lines are used to show any part of an object that cannot be seen but does exist.
      • They are dashed lines.
  • Drawing Symbols - Centre Lines
      • Centre lines are used to show the centre of circles or lines of symmetry.
      • They are drawn as a series of long and short dashes.
  • Drawing Symbols - Cutting Planes
      • Cutting planes are used to show where an object is cut in a sectional drawing.
      • The arrows tell us what direction the cut is to be viewed.
      • The letters are the label of the section.
      • The ends of the cutting plane are drawn slightly thicker than the rest of it.
    X X
  • Drawing Symbols - Fold Lines
      • Fold lines are used to show where surface developments should be folded.
  • Building Symbols
      • Engineers need to use symbols to show the different materials used in building a house.
      • This is law as when submitting planning permission a company must be able to prove the quality of the houses or buildings they want to build.
  • Building Symbols
      • These are some common symbols that you will need to remember.
    Bath Sink top Sink Washbasin Shower tray Radiator
  • Building Symbols
      • These are some common symbols that you will need to remember.
    In-line valve (any type) Window Sawn wood Door Junctions Crossover
  • Building Symbols
      • These are some common symbols that you will need to remember.
    Bulb Insulation Switch Socket Brickwork Concrete
  • Storyboards
      • Storyboards give step by step instructions on how to operate something using pictures to illustrate what is to be done at each stage.
      • Short statements further help the user understand what to do.
      • They are often found on change machines and in electrical appliance instructions.
  • Storyboards
      • These are advantageous as a person does not have to speak any specific language to understand what to do.
      • The written instructions are kept very short which helps people who, for any reason, cannot read things properly.
      • Often the statements are also given in many different languages to help foreigners.
  • Building drawings
      • A number of different drawings are required to be completed and submitted to the local authorities when developers want to build new buildings.
      • This group of drawings is called a Project Set.
  • Project Set
      • A project set consists of a number of different drawings including
        • elevations
        • sketches
        • sectional drawings
        • schematic diagrams
        • location plans
        • site plans
        • floor plans
  • Project Set
      • Elevations, sketches and sectional drawings are required to view the actual building.
      • Schematic diagrams are used by tradesmen to install any electrical circuit work or plumbing and heating.
      • Schematic diagrams use British Standards symbols covered in these slides.
  • Location Plans
      • This type of drawing shows the position of the new building in its surrounding area.
      • It is as if you are looking at the building from an aeroplane above.
      • It is normally drawn to a scale of 1:1250.
  • Location Plans
      • This is an example of a location plan.
    Albany Terrace Albany Drive Albany Road
  • Site Plans
      • This type of drawing shows the building from closer in than a Location Plan.
      • It is like a bird is looking down at it.
      • It shows the building in its immediate surrounding area.
      • It is normally drawn at a scale of 1:200.
  • Site Plans
      • This is an example of a site plan.
    Glenisla Drive 7 8.5 5 2 12.5
  • Floor Plans
      • This type of drawing shows the internal layout of a building including the materials used in the walls.
      • Any electrical appliances fitted will also be drawn like, radiators, electrical sockets and switches.
      • This type of drawing is normally drawn at a scale of 1:50.
  • Floor Plans
      • This is an example of a floor plan.