Signs & Symbols


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Signs & Symbols

  1. 1. Graphic Communication Signs & Symbols
  2. 2. Signs <ul><ul><li>Signs are used to convey information in pictorial form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This has many advantages over written instructions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who talk different languages can understand the same common signs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions for some tasks can be clearer when given as drawings. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Signs & Symbols <ul><ul><li>Signs & symbols are commonly used in everyday situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roadsigns, information, engineering symbols, flow charts and circuit diagrams are types of drawings that you will need to know about for your exams. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Signs <ul><ul><li>There are different families of signs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mandatory signs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prohibition signs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>warning signs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>safety signs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>danger signs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Signs - Mandatory signs <ul><ul><li>These signs are blue in colour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They give a positive instruction. In other words they tell you what to do rather than what not to do. </li></ul></ul>Turn left
  6. 6. Signs - Prohibition signs <ul><ul><li>These signs are circular with a line across the circle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are red in colour. </li></ul></ul>No smoking
  7. 7. Signs - Warning signs <ul><ul><li>These signs are yellow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are normally triangular but can be other shapes. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Signs - Safety Signs <ul><ul><li>These signs tell people of safe places to go or safe conditions. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Signs - Danger signs <ul><ul><li>These signs warn people of dangerous situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly found on roadsigns and the back of long vehicles. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Signs <ul><ul><li>There are also general information signs used for a number of different purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some common signs are shown over the next few slides. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Signs - Kitemark <ul><ul><li>The Kitemark is used to tell consumers that the products they buy are safety tested to BSI standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All products sold must carry this Kitemark to be legally sold. </li></ul></ul>The British Standards Kitemark.
  12. 12. Signs - Fragile <ul><ul><li>This mark is placed on breakable objects’ packaging to tell people handling the box to treat it with care. </li></ul></ul>The Fragile symbol.
  13. 13. Signs - Recycled <ul><ul><li>This mark is placed on recycled objects to tell the consumer that they are buying a recycled product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a big advertising point as companies like their products to be seen as being environmentally friendly. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Signs - Disabled <ul><ul><li>This is used to show disabled access. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Signs - male & female <ul><ul><li>These signs are used commonly to distinguish the male and female toilets. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Flow Charts <ul><ul><li>A Flow Chart is a method of showing the correct steps to follow in order to complete some type of problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are some symbols used in flow charts to show certain processes that have to be done when completing the problem. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Flow Charts <ul><ul><li>These symbols are shown below. </li></ul></ul>Process Decision Start/Stop Input/Output
  18. 18. Flow Charts <ul><ul><li>An example of a flow chart for a pelican crossing is shown: </li></ul></ul>Start Has button been pushed? Amber light on Red light on Amber light flash Red light off Wait 2 Wait 10 Wait 5 Green light on Yes No
  19. 19. Circuit Diagrams <ul><ul><li>When electrical circuits are designed, standard symbols are used to tell people what the different components are. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is so people from different countries and areas can understand the drawings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It would be dangerous for a person to wire a circuit up incorrectly simply because they did not understand the drawing! </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Circuit Diagrams <ul><ul><li>These symbols are drawn to British Standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You have to know some of them. These are drawn over the next two slides. </li></ul></ul>junctions cross-overs switch (general symbol)
  21. 21. Circuit Diagrams battery bulb electric bell microphone loudspeaker
  22. 22. Drawing Symbols <ul><ul><li>Drawings use many different line types to show different parts of an object. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are standardised so that anyone can understand what is meant by a particular line type regardless of where they come from. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Drawing Symbols <ul><ul><li>Orthographic drawings are drawn in Third Angle Projection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a standard drawing layout covered in the tutorial on orthographic projection where the 3 views are drawn in the direction you are looking at them. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Drawing Symbols <ul><ul><li>The 3rd Angle Projection symbol is shown below. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is normally included on a drawing to tell people the standard it is drawn in. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Drawing Symbols <ul><ul><li>Different line types used include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>outlines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>projection lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hidden detail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>centre lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cutting planes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fold lines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Drawing Symbols - Outlines <ul><ul><li>Outlines are used to show the outline of an object. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are thicker than projection lines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawn at 0.7mm thick. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Drawing Symbols - Projection Lines <ul><ul><li>Projection lines are used to help construct a drawing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are not part of the outline of the drawing and are drawn lightly and thin. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Drawing Symbols - Hidden Detail <ul><ul><li>Hidden detail lines are used to show any part of an object that cannot be seen but does exist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are dashed lines. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Drawing Symbols - Centre Lines <ul><ul><li>Centre lines are used to show the centre of circles or lines of symmetry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are drawn as a series of long and short dashes. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Drawing Symbols - Cutting Planes <ul><ul><li>Cutting planes are used to show where an object is cut in a sectional drawing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The arrows tell us what direction the cut is to be viewed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The letters are the label of the section. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ends of the cutting plane are drawn slightly thicker than the rest of it. </li></ul></ul>X X
  31. 31. Drawing Symbols - Fold Lines <ul><ul><li>Fold lines are used to show where surface developments should be folded. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Building Symbols <ul><ul><li>Engineers need to use symbols to show the different materials used in building a house. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is law as when submitting planning permission a company must be able to prove the quality of the houses or buildings they want to build. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Building Symbols <ul><ul><li>These are some common symbols that you will need to remember. </li></ul></ul>Bath Sink top Sink Washbasin Shower tray Radiator
  34. 34. Building Symbols <ul><ul><li>These are some common symbols that you will need to remember. </li></ul></ul>In-line valve (any type) Window Sawn wood Door Junctions Crossover
  35. 35. Building Symbols <ul><ul><li>These are some common symbols that you will need to remember. </li></ul></ul>Bulb Insulation Switch Socket Brickwork Concrete
  36. 36. Storyboards <ul><ul><li>Storyboards give step by step instructions on how to operate something using pictures to illustrate what is to be done at each stage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short statements further help the user understand what to do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are often found on change machines and in electrical appliance instructions. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Storyboards <ul><ul><li>These are advantageous as a person does not have to speak any specific language to understand what to do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The written instructions are kept very short which helps people who, for any reason, cannot read things properly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often the statements are also given in many different languages to help foreigners. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Building drawings <ul><ul><li>A number of different drawings are required to be completed and submitted to the local authorities when developers want to build new buildings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This group of drawings is called a Project Set. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Project Set <ul><ul><li>A project set consists of a number of different drawings including </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>elevations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sketches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sectional drawings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>schematic diagrams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>location plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>site plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>floor plans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Project Set <ul><ul><li>Elevations, sketches and sectional drawings are required to view the actual building. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schematic diagrams are used by tradesmen to install any electrical circuit work or plumbing and heating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schematic diagrams use British Standards symbols covered in these slides. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Location Plans <ul><ul><li>This type of drawing shows the position of the new building in its surrounding area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is as if you are looking at the building from an aeroplane above. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is normally drawn to a scale of 1:1250. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Location Plans <ul><ul><li>This is an example of a location plan. </li></ul></ul>Albany Terrace Albany Drive Albany Road
  43. 43. Site Plans <ul><ul><li>This type of drawing shows the building from closer in than a Location Plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is like a bird is looking down at it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It shows the building in its immediate surrounding area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is normally drawn at a scale of 1:200. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Site Plans <ul><ul><li>This is an example of a site plan. </li></ul></ul>Glenisla Drive 7 8.5 5 2 12.5
  45. 45. Floor Plans <ul><ul><li>This type of drawing shows the internal layout of a building including the materials used in the walls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any electrical appliances fitted will also be drawn like, radiators, electrical sockets and switches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This type of drawing is normally drawn at a scale of 1:50. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Floor Plans <ul><ul><li>This is an example of a floor plan. </li></ul></ul>