West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)
The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of the League of Nations and the people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a future referendum.
The League of Nations also took control of Germany's overseas colonies.
Germany had to return to Russia land taken in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Some of this land was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. An enlarged Poland also received some of this land
Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men; the army was not allowed tanks
Germany was not allowed an airforce
Germany was allowed only 6 capital naval ships and no submarines
The west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the River Rhine was made into a demilitarized zone (DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowed into this zone. The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
1. Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war. This was Clause 231 - the infamous "War Guilt Clause".
2. Germany, as it was responsible for starting the war as stated in clause 231, was therefore responsible for all the war damage caused by the First World War. Therefore, they had to pay reparations, the bulk of which would go to France and Belgium to pay for the damage done to both countries by the war. The figure was eventually put at $33 billion .
3. A League of Nations was set up to keep world peace.
Were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles actually carried out ?
The League of Nations was to be created. This did happen even if Germany was initially excluded from it.
Land had to be handed over the Poland, France, Belgium and Denmark. This did happen - all the land Germany was required to hand over, was handed over. Territory put under League of Nations control was handed over to the League.
All overseas colonies were to be handed over to the League. This did happen.
All land taken from Russia had to be handed back to Russia. This did happen though land in the western area became Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia in keeping with the belief in national self-determination.
Germany’s army had to be reduced to 100,000 men. On paper this happened. The fact that Germany side-stepped the rule did not mean that they broke it. German soldiers in the 1920’s were signed on for a short contract of service and then put in the reserves once their time had finished. Therefore, Germany never had more than 100,000 soldiers serving at any one time though it certainly had substantial reserve soldiers which boosted Hitler when he renounced the clauses of Versailles.
Were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles actually carried out ?
Germany’s navy was reduced to 6 battleships with no submarines. This happened. Germany could not afford battleships in the aftermath of the war and most navies were now moving to smaller, faster ships that could also carry weapons that carried a punch - such as cruisers. Aircraft carriers were also being developed with greater commitment.
No air force was allowed. This happened but potential pilots were trained abroad or used gliders in Germany to educate them in the theory of flying. This did not break Versailles.
Western Germany was to be demilitarized. This happened .
Germany was forbidden to unite with Austria. This happened .
Germany had to accept the "War Guilt Clause" and pay reparations. The former happened because Germany signed the Treaty which meant that it accepted this term on paper . Germany did try and pay reparations when it could do so. Germany simply could not produce enough to keep up. In the 1920’s it was the Allies who took the decision to reduce reparations and eased Germany’s struggle in so doing. The first instance of refusal to pay reparations came in 1933 when Hitler announced that Germany would not pay - and the Allies did nothing.
The German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles
There was anger throughout Germany when the terms were made public.
The Treaty became known as a Diktat - as it was being forced on them and the Germans had no choice but to sign it.
Many in Germany did not want the Treaty signed, but the representatives there knew that they had no choice as Germany was incapable of restarting the war again.
the Treaty seemed to satisfy the "Big Three" as in their eyes it was a just peace as it kept Germany weak yet strong enough to stop the spread of communism; kept the French border with Germany safe from another German attack and created the League of Nations that would end warfare throughout the world.
left a mood of anger throughout Germany as it was felt that as a nation Germany had been unfairly treated.
Above all else, Germany hated the clause blaming them for the cause of the war and the war reparations the treaty forced on them. Those who signed it became known as the "November Criminals".
Many German citizens felt that they were being punished for the mistakes of the German government in August 1914 as it was the government that had declared war not the people.
“ If, with the help of his Marxist creed, the Jew is victorious over the other peoples of the world, his crown will be the funeral wreath of humanity and this planet will, as it did thousands of years ago, move through the ether devoid of men.”
“ Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord .”
“ Here he stops at nothing, and in his vileness he becomes so gigantic that no one need be surprised if among our people the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew.”
“ With satanic joy in his face, the black-haired Jewish youth lurks in wait for the unsuspecting girl whom he defiles with his blood, thus stealing her from her people. With every means he tries to destroy the racial foundations of the people he has set out to subjugate. Just as he himself systematically ruins women and girls, he does not shrink back from pulling down the blood barriers for others, even on a large scale. It was and it is Jews who bring the Negroes into the Rhineland, always with the same secret thought and clear aim of ruining the hated white race by the necessarily resulting bastardization, throwing it down from its cultural and political height, and himself rising to be its master.”
"All propaganda must be so popular and on such an intellectual level, that even the most stupid of those toward whom it is directed will understand it... Through clever and constant application of propaganda, people can be made to see paradise as hell, and also the other way around, to consider the most wretched sort of life as paradise."
mentally/physically handicapped people(75,000 to 250,000)
Soviet Slavs/POW’s/Troops -( 16.5 million) The Russian Academy of Science in 1995 reported civilian victims in the USSR, including Jews, at German hands totaled 13.7 million dead including 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide, 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. German captors killed an estimated 2.8 million Soviet POWs through starvation, exposure, and execution
Poles(2.5 million dead)
Homosexuals(5-15 thousand dead)
communists/socialists(many but number not confirmed)
dark skinned people(death and forced sterilization)
mixed races-"The mulatto children came about through rape or the white mother was a whore," Adolf Hitler
Nazis "temporarily" suspend civil liberities for all citizens in 1933-Never restored.
The Nazis set up the first concentration camp at Dachau in 1933. The first inmates are 200 Communists.
Jews are prohibited from working as civil servants, doctors in the National Health Service, and teachers in public high schools. All but few Jewish students are banned from public high schools and colleges.
Took away German citizenship from Jews thus making Jews second class citizens by removing their basic civil rights.
established membership in the Jewish race as being anyone who either considered themselves Jewish or had three or four Jewish grandparents. People with one or two Jewish grandparents were considered to be mixed race.
- eventually anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent was at risk in Nazi Germany
3. Jews could only marry Jews
4. No sexual relations between non-Jewish Germans and Jews
William Luksenburg Describes the first night of the German invasion of Poland
“ Things began to change right the first night. The first night there were blackouts all over town. They would have a curfew. After dark, nobody's supposed to leave the house. The first memorable night is, was, when I...when some of our neighbors tried to...a young man tried to cross the street and he didn't realize just crossing the street, uh, would...would break, breach the curfew and a German soldier said, "Halt," and he kept on running. And he got machine-gunned all the way across, and he fell right in front of our house. So the Germans started yelling, all the men "'Raus" [Get out], all the men out to help carry the body in and made me carry the body with four other persons. And because, the way he was machine-gunned, he was completely like cut in half. When I got home I was completely covered with blood, and I remember when I got into the house, my mother looked at me completely covered.There was something...such an awful thing to see first time. I was just absolutely covered with blood, and I always remember my mother's, uh, expression and my mother's fear and my mother's cry out when she saw me completely covered with blood and that was the first night, the first expression what was...We didn't know what's coming and it was a horrible thing, that first night.”
Airforce attacks enemy front-line and rear positions, main roads, airfields and communication centers. At the same time, infantry attacks on the entire frontline and engages enemy.
Tank(panzer) units breakthrough main lines of defense and advance deeper into enemy territory. While following, mechanized units pursue and engage defenders preventing them from establishing defensive positions. Infantry continues to engage enemy for the same reason.
Infantry attacks enemy flanks in order to link up with other groups to complete the attack and eventually encircle the enemy and/or capture strategic position.
Mechanized groups go deeper into the enemy territory outflanking the enemy positions and preventing withdrawing troops and defenders from establishing effective defensive positions.
Main force links up with other units encircling and cutting off the enemy.
Goal was to achieve victory as quickly as possible
Main Powers : Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, China, France
Latin America : Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Paraguay, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatamala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezueala
Winston Churchill "What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilization. Upon it depends our own British life and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us now. Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age, made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will say, "This was their finest hour."
Great Britain gave us 99 year leases on the following bases:
Antigua - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base British Guiana - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base Jamaica - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base St. Lucia - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base Bermuda - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base Newfoundland - Three Army Air Force Bases (Pepperell, Goose Bay and Stephenville), Naval Operating Base Argentia and numerous Marine and Army Bases and Detachments,
88 in total Trinidad - Naval Operating Base, Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base, Lighter Than Air (Blimp) Base and Radio Station