Go over Europe After WWII/TOV, Reaction to TOV Overhead
Treaty of Versailles
The following land was taken away from Germany :
Alsace-Lorraine (given to France)
Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium)
Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark)
Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia)
West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)
The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of the League of Nations and the people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a future referendum.
The League of Nations also took control of Germany's overseas colonies.
Germany had to return to Russia land taken in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Some of this land was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. An enlarged Poland also received some of this land
Treaty of Versailles
Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men; the army was not allowed tanks
Germany was not allowed an airforce
Germany was allowed only 6 capital naval ships and no submarines
The west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the River Rhine was made into a demilitarized zone (DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowed into this zone. The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
Treaty of Versailles
The loss of vital industrial territory would be a severe blow to Germany’s economy. Coal from the Saar and Upper Silesia in particular was a vital economic loss.
Combined with the financial penalties linked to reparations($33 billion), it seemed clear to Germany that the Allies wanted nothing else but to bankrupt them.
Germany was also forbidden to unite with Austria to form one superstate.
Treaty of Versailles
1. Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war. This was Clause 231 - the infamous "War Guilt Clause".
2. Germany, as it was responsible for starting the war as stated in clause 231, was therefore responsible for all the war damage caused by the First World War. Therefore, they had to pay reparations, the bulk of which would go to France and Belgium to pay for the damage done to both countries by the war. The figure was eventually put at $33 billion .
3. A League of Nations was set up to keep world peace.
Were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles actually carried out ?
The League of Nations was to be created. This did happen even if Germany was initially excluded from it.
Land had to be handed over the Poland, France, Belgium and Denmark. This did happen - all the land Germany was required to hand over, was handed over. Territory put under League of Nations control was handed over to the League.
All overseas colonies were to be handed over to the League. This did happen.
All land taken from Russia had to be handed back to Russia. This did happen though land in the western area became Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia in keeping with the belief in national self-determination.
Germany’s army had to be reduced to 100,000 men. On paper this happened. The fact that Germany side-stepped the rule did not mean that they broke it. German soldiers in the 1920’s were signed on for a short contract of service and then put in the reserves once their time had finished. Therefore, Germany never had more than 100,000 soldiers serving at any one time though it certainly had substantial reserve soldiers which boosted Hitler when he renounced the clauses of Versailles.
Were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles actually carried out ?
Germany’s navy was reduced to 6 battleships with no submarines. This happened. Germany could not afford battleships in the aftermath of the war and most navies were now moving to smaller, faster ships that could also carry weapons that carried a punch - such as cruisers. Aircraft carriers were also being developed with greater commitment.
No air force was allowed. This happened but potential pilots were trained abroad or used gliders in Germany to educate them in the theory of flying. This did not break Versailles.
Western Germany was to be demilitarized. This happened .
Germany was forbidden to unite with Austria. This happened .
Germany had to accept the "War Guilt Clause" and pay reparations. The former happened because Germany signed the Treaty which meant that it accepted this term on paper . Germany did try and pay reparations when it could do so. Germany simply could not produce enough to keep up. In the 1920’s it was the Allies who took the decision to reduce reparations and eased Germany’s struggle in so doing. The first instance of refusal to pay reparations came in 1933 when Hitler announced that Germany would not pay - and the Allies did nothing.
The German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles
There was anger throughout Germany when the terms were made public.
The Treaty became known as a Diktat - as it was being forced on them and the Germans had no choice but to sign it.
Many in Germany did not want the Treaty signed, but the representatives there knew that they had no choice as Germany was incapable of restarting the war again.
The Consequences of Versailles
the Treaty seemed to satisfy the "Big Three" as in their eyes it was a just peace as it kept Germany weak yet strong enough to stop the spread of communism; kept the French border with Germany safe from another German attack and created the League of Nations that would end warfare throughout the world.
left a mood of anger throughout Germany as it was felt that as a nation Germany had been unfairly treated.
Above all else, Germany hated the clause blaming them for the cause of the war and the war reparations the treaty forced on them. Those who signed it became known as the "November Criminals".
Many German citizens felt that they were being punished for the mistakes of the German government in August 1914 as it was the government that had declared war not the people.
Why did it fail in Germany?
League of Nations
Washington Naval Conference
League of Nations
What is it?
What were it’s weaknesses?
Hitler as a baby in Austria
Mussolini and Hitler
Mein Kampf “My Struggle” Excerpts
“ If, with the help of his Marxist creed, the Jew is victorious over the other peoples of the world, his crown will be the funeral wreath of humanity and this planet will, as it did thousands of years ago, move through the ether devoid of men.”
“ Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord .”
“ Here he stops at nothing, and in his vileness he becomes so gigantic that no one need be surprised if among our people the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew.”
“ With satanic joy in his face, the black-haired Jewish youth lurks in wait for the unsuspecting girl whom he defiles with his blood, thus stealing her from her people. With every means he tries to destroy the racial foundations of the people he has set out to subjugate. Just as he himself systematically ruins women and girls, he does not shrink back from pulling down the blood barriers for others, even on a large scale. It was and it is Jews who bring the Negroes into the Rhineland, always with the same secret thought and clear aim of ruining the hated white race by the necessarily resulting bastardization, throwing it down from its cultural and political height, and himself rising to be its master.”
"All propaganda must be so popular and on such an intellectual level, that even the most stupid of those toward whom it is directed will understand it... Through clever and constant application of propaganda, people can be made to see paradise as hell, and also the other way around, to consider the most wretched sort of life as paradise."
-- Adolf Hitler
Nazi Posters: 1933-1945
The genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II
A program of systematic state-sponsored extermination by Nazi Germany throughout Nazi-occupied territory
Approximately two-thirds of the population of nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust died
Some maintain that the definition of the Holocaust should also include the Nazis' genocide of millions of people in other groups from Germany and other occupied territory
By this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims would be between 11 million and 17 million people
Who was inferior according to Hitler?
Jews(6 million dead)
Gypsies( 500,000 to 1.5 million)
mentally/physically handicapped people(75,000 to 250,000)
Soviet Slavs/POW’s/Troops -( 16.5 million) The Russian Academy of Science in 1995 reported civilian victims in the USSR, including Jews, at German hands totaled 13.7 million dead including 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide, 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. German captors killed an estimated 2.8 million Soviet POWs through starvation, exposure, and execution
Poles(2.5 million dead)
Homosexuals(5-15 thousand dead)
communists/socialists(many but number not confirmed)
dark skinned people(death and forced sterilization)
mixed races-"The mulatto children came about through rape or the white mother was a whore," Adolf Hitler
What is the Aryan Race?
misused by the Nazis to mean a so-called master race that originated around Germany
perfect Aryan was blonde, blue-eyed, tall and muscular.
The original term refers to a people speaking a Indo-European dialect.
Lebensborn-Fount of Life
The program aimed to promote the growth of "superior" Aryan populations by providing excellent health care and living conditions to women and by restricting access to those deemed “fit”
Houses were set up throughout Germany and many occupied territiories
Many Lebensborn children were born to unwed mothers which helped lead to many rumors of rape.
Contrary to widespread rumors, women were not forced to have relations with Aryan Germans
Hitler’s Jewish Question 1933
Nazis "temporarily" suspend civil liberities for all citizens in 1933-Never restored.
The Nazis set up the first concentration camp at Dachau in 1933. The first inmates are 200 Communists.
Jews are prohibited from working as civil servants, doctors in the National Health Service, and teachers in public high schools. All but few Jewish students are banned from public high schools and colleges.
Nuremburg Laws 1935
Took away German citizenship from Jews thus making Jews second class citizens by removing their basic civil rights.
established membership in the Jewish race as being anyone who either considered themselves Jewish or had three or four Jewish grandparents. People with one or two Jewish grandparents were considered to be mixed race.
- eventually anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent was at risk in Nazi Germany
3. Jews could only marry Jews
4. No sexual relations between non-Jewish Germans and Jews
Nazis boycott Jewish-owned businesses
Kristallnacht-1938 “Night of the Broken Glass”
On the nights of November 9 and 10, 1938, gangs of Nazi youth roamed through Jewish neighborhoods breaking windows of Jewish businesses and homes, burning synagogues and looting.
In all, 101 synagogues were destroyed and almost 7,500 Jewish businesses were destroyed. 26,000 Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps.
Jews were physically attacked and beaten and 91 died in the attack.
All Jewish children are expelled from public schools in Germany and Austria.
Nazis take control of Jewish-owned businesses.
Hitler orders the systematic murder of the mentally and physically disabled in Germany and Austria
Jews are required to wear armbands or yellow stars
Nazis begin deporting German Jews to Poland
Jews are forced into ghettos
Nazis begin the first mass murder of Jews in Poland
Jews throughout Eastern Europe are forced into ghettos
In two days, German units shoot 33,771 Ukrainian Jews at BabiYar- the largest single massacre of the Holocaust
The death camp at Chelmno in Poland begins murdering Jews
Nazi officials announce "Final Solution"- their plan to kill all European Jews
Five death camps begin operation in Poland: Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka, Belzec, and Auschwitz-Birkenau
Ghettos of Eastern Europe are being emptied as thousands of Jews are shipped to death camps.
The United States, Great Britian, and the Soviet Union acknowledge that Germans are exterminating the Jews of Europe.
Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto resist as the Nazis begin new rounds of deportations. These Jews hold out for nearly a month before the Nazis put down the uprising.
Hitler takes over Hungary and begins deporting 12,000 Hungarian Jews each day to Auschwitz where they are murdered
Hitler is defeated and World War II ends in Europe.
The Holocaust is over and the death camps are emptied.
Many survivors are placed in displaced persons camps until they find a country willing to accept them.
The United Nations establishes a Jewish homeland in British- controlled Palestine, which becomes the State of Israel in 1948.
Nazi Death Camps
Nazi Science Experiments
Nazi Science in the Camps
Mengele's Children - The Twins of Auschwitz Page 2
Josef Mengele was the chief physician at Auschwitz
Iosif Jughashvili/Joseph Stalin
Afghanistan, Finland, Peru, Albania,
Guatemala, Portugal, Austria, Hungary,
Rumania, Bulgaria, Iceland, Russia, China Latvia, Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Denmark, Lithuania, Siam,
3.An issue so far from Europe was not likely to attract the whole-hearted support of the major European powers in the League - Britain and France.
4. Great Britain was more concerned with it’s territories in the Far East than in the maintenance of law and order.
5. Other powers would see this as a sign that they too could get away with the use of force
6. The League also lost its most powerful member in the Far East and ultimately Japan was to unite with the two other nations that broke League rules - Germany and Italy.
Franklin Roosevelt vs Herbert Hoover
Good Neighbor Policy
Ethiopia invaded by Mussolini 1936
Italy lost its Ethiopia colony in Africa at the 1896 Battle of Adua
one of the worst colonial disasters of modern history
Feb. 23, 1935, Italy sends large forces into Ethiopia
Oct. 7, 1935, League declared Italy the aggressor
Nov. 18 , 1935, Leagues sanctions begin
-arms embargo, financial embargo, non-importation of Italian goods
Feb. 1936 - League could not agree on critical oil sanctions mainly because FDR refused - U.S. controlled 50% world oil trade
Feb. 29, 1936, FDR signed the 1936 Neutrality Act
1. mandatory arms embargo with warring nations 2. mandatory ban on loans to warring nations
May 5 - Italy occupied Addis Ababa - annexed all Ethiopia May 9
Generalisimo Francisco Franco and the Spanish Civil War
FDR vs. Alf Landon 1936
Election of 1936
Anschluss with Austria
Neville Chamberlain-Great Britain
Munich Conference Chamberlain: “Peace for our time”
Soviet-German Non-aggression Pact German ambassador von Ribbentrop and Soviet dictator Stalin laugh as Molotov signs the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact on August 23, 1939.
Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact
Russia gave raw materials to Germany in exchange for money and weapons
Both agreed to stay neutral if the other entered the war
Secretly agreed to invade and split Poland. Germany would get the western half and USSR the eastern half
Russia would get Finland, Estonia and Latvia and Germany would get Lithuania
How did the world react to this pact?
Poland was scared
Hitler thought it would force Great Britain and France to back out of their promise to help Poland if attacked
German invasion of Poland
William Luksenburg Describes the first night of the German invasion of Poland
“ Things began to change right the first night. The first night there were blackouts all over town. They would have a curfew. After dark, nobody's supposed to leave the house. The first memorable night is, was, when I...when some of our neighbors tried to...a young man tried to cross the street and he didn't realize just crossing the street, uh, would...would break, breach the curfew and a German soldier said, "Halt," and he kept on running. And he got machine-gunned all the way across, and he fell right in front of our house. So the Germans started yelling, all the men "'Raus" [Get out], all the men out to help carry the body in and made me carry the body with four other persons. And because, the way he was machine-gunned, he was completely like cut in half. When I got home I was completely covered with blood, and I remember when I got into the house, my mother looked at me completely covered.There was something...such an awful thing to see first time. I was just absolutely covered with blood, and I always remember my mother's, uh, expression and my mother's fear and my mother's cry out when she saw me completely covered with blood and that was the first night, the first expression what was...We didn't know what's coming and it was a horrible thing, that first night.”
The Concept of Blitzkrieg.
Airforce attacks enemy front-line and rear positions, main roads, airfields and communication centers. At the same time, infantry attacks on the entire frontline and engages enemy.
Tank(panzer) units breakthrough main lines of defense and advance deeper into enemy territory. While following, mechanized units pursue and engage defenders preventing them from establishing defensive positions. Infantry continues to engage enemy for the same reason.
Infantry attacks enemy flanks in order to link up with other groups to complete the attack and eventually encircle the enemy and/or capture strategic position.
Mechanized groups go deeper into the enemy territory outflanking the enemy positions and preventing withdrawing troops and defenders from establishing effective defensive positions.
Main force links up with other units encircling and cutting off the enemy.
Goal was to achieve victory as quickly as possible
Sitzkrieg-The Phony War
Tripartite Pact is signed Axis Powers
Main Powers : Germany, Italy Japan
Other Powers : Albania, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Thailand, Hungary
Main Powers : Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, China, France
Latin America : Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Paraguay, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatamala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezueala
Europe : Belgium , Czechoslovakia , Denmark, Greece, Norway, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Poland, San Marino, Turkey, Yugoslavia
Africa : Egypt, Ethiopia, Liberia, South Africa
Asia/Other : China, India, Iran, Iraq, Mongolia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, New Zealand, Australia, Canada
German Invasion of Denmark and Norway
French and German Plans for the Battle of France 1940
Maginot line - visual visit - thionville fortification system
Miracle of Dunkirk
German Advances until the Armistice-Battle of France: June 4-22, 1940
Led by Marshal Henri Petain
Free French Underground
Led by Charles de Gaulle
Europe prior to the Battle of Britain-July, 1940
Winston Churchill "What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilization. Upon it depends our own British life and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us now. Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age, made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will say, "This was their finest hour."
Destroy the Royal Air Force(before invasion was possible-hopefully by 9-15)
Attack and destroy the British Navy
Attack British troops
**Germany never succeeded in achieving #1
**German bombers did so poorly against the RAF that they started bombing at night only
**Great Britain was aided heavily by the radar and Ultra
Preliminary raids on GB ships
Stage 1: Attack the Royal Air Force
Stage 2: Intensified raids on RAF
Stage 3: Started attacking London and other cities
Battle of Britain
Royal Air Force
Messerschmitt Bf 109
British Propaganda Battle of Britain
Bases for Destroyers
Great Britain gave us 99 year leases on the following bases:
Antigua - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base British Guiana - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base Jamaica - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base St. Lucia - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base Bermuda - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base Newfoundland - Three Army Air Force Bases (Pepperell, Goose Bay and Stephenville), Naval Operating Base Argentia and numerous Marine and Army Bases and Detachments,
88 in total Trinidad - Naval Operating Base, Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base, Lighter Than Air (Blimp) Base and Radio Station
US gave Great Britain old destroyers:
FDR Signs the Lend-Lease Act
German U-boat Warfare
1939 : 222 ships sunk (114 by submarine)
1940 : 1059 ships sunk (471 by submarine)
1941 : 1328 ships sunk (432 by submarine)
1942 : 1661 ships sunk (1159 by submarine)
1943 : 597 ships sunk (463 by submarine)
1944 : 247 ships sunk (132 by submarine)
1945 : 105 ships sunk (56 by submarine)
THE ATLANTIC CHARTER-FDR/Churchill
No territorial gain
No territorial changes without the peoples support form those countires
Destruction of the Nazis and then setting up a peaceful governmnet in Germany
Freedom of the seas
Abandon the use of force, disarmament and a stronger League of
German Invasion of USSR
Final Plan for Operation Barbarossa
Scorched Earth Policy
Stalin demanded this of the Soviet troops as they retreated
What is this?
Operation Typhoon :
Battle of Moscow
September 30 - December 5, 1941
The Soviet Winter Counteroffensive December 6, 1941 - April 30, 1942