Treaty of Versailles• Territorial• The following land was taken away from Germany :• Alsace-Lorraine (given to France)• Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium)• Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark)• Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia)• West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)• The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of the League of Nations and the people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a future referendum.• The League of Nations also took control of Germanys overseas colonies.• Germany had to return to Russia land taken in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Some of this land was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. An enlarged Poland also received some of this land
Treaty of Versailles• Military• Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men; the army was not allowed tanks• Germany was not allowed an airforce• Germany was allowed only 6 capital naval ships and no submarines• The west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the River Rhine was made into a demilitarized zone (DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowed into this zone. The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
Treaty of Versailles• Financial• The loss of vital industrial territory would be a severe blow to Germany’s economy. Coal from the Saar and Upper Silesia in particular was a vital economic loss.• Germany had to pay $33 billion to the Allies(GB/France).• Germany was also forbidden to unite with Austria to form one superstate.
Treaty of Versailles• General• 1. Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war. This was Clause 231 - the infamous "War Guilt Clause".• 2. Germany, as it was responsible for starting the war as stated in clause 231, was therefore responsible for all the war damage caused by the First World War. Therefore, they had to pay reparations, the bulk of which would go to France and Belgium to pay for the damage done to both countries by the war. The figure was eventually put at $33 billion .• 3. A League of Nations was set up to keep world peace.
The German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles• There was anger throughout Germany when the terms were made public.• The Treaty became known as a Diktat - as it was being forced on them and the Germans had no choice but to sign it.• Many in Germany did not want the Treaty signed• German representatives there knew that they had no choice as Germany was incapable of restarting the war again.
The Allies Reaction to Treaty of Versailles• At first, the treaty seemed to satisfy the Big Three(US, GB, France)• Allies believed it was a just peace as it kept Germany weak yet strong enough to stop the spread of communism• kept the French border with Germany safe from another German attack and created the League of Nations that would end warfare throughout the world• When Wilson brought treaty back to the US Senate for ratification, the Senate refused to sign it. Why?• Most countries ultimately were unhappy with the treaty and the results of WWI. Why?
Weimer Republic• Why did it fail in Germany?
League of Nations• What is it?• What were it’s weaknesses?
League of Nations
Washington Naval Conference- 1921
4 Power Pact• a treaty signed by the United States, Great Britain, France and Japan at the Washington Naval Conference in 1921.• countries agreed to respect each others possessions in the Pacific and not seek further territory
5 Power Pact• Signed by Great Britain, the United States, Japan, France, and Italy• Designed to prevent an arm’s race• It limited the construction of battleships, battle cruisers and aircraft carriers• Did not restrict cruisers, destroyers or submarines
9 Power Pact• Guaranteed Chinese independence and upheld the Open Door Policy• Signed by the United States, Japan, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal
Hitler as a baby in Austria
Mussolini and Hitler
Mein Kampf “My Struggle” Excerpts• “If, with the help of his Marxist creed, the Jew is victorious over the other peoples of the world, his crown will be the funeral wreath of humanity and this planet will, as it did thousands of years ago, move through the ether devoid of men.”• “Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.”• “Here he stops at nothing, and in his vileness he becomes so gigantic that no one need be surprised if among our people the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew.”• “With satanic joy in his face, the black-haired Jewish youth lurks in wait for the unsuspecting girl whom he defiles with his blood, thus stealing her from her people. With every means he tries to destroy the racial foundations of the people he has set out to subjugate. Just as he himself systematically ruins women and girls, he does not shrink back from pulling down the blood barriers for others, even on a large scale. It was and it is Jews who bring the Negroes into the Rhineland, always with the same secret thought and clear aim of ruining the hated white race by the necessarily resulting bastardization, throwing it down from its cultural and political height, and himself rising to be its master.”
Nazi Propaganda• "All propaganda must be so popular and on such an intellectual level, that even the most stupid of those toward whom it is directed will understand it... Through clever and constant application of propaganda, people can be made to see paradise as hell, and also the other way around, to consider the most wretched sort of life as paradise."• -- Adolf Hitler
More Posters• Nazi Posters: 1933-1945
The Holocaust• The genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II• A program of systematic state-sponsored extermination by Nazi Germany throughout Nazi-occupied territory• Approximately two-thirds of the population of nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust died• Some maintain that the definition of the Holocaust should also include the Nazis genocide of millions of people in other groups from Germany and other occupied territory• By this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims would be between 11 million and 17 million people
Who was inferior according to Hitler?1. Jews(6 million dead)2. Gypsies(500,000 to 1.5 million)3. mentally/physically handicapped people(75,000 to 250,000)4. Soviet Slavs/POW’s/Troops-(16.5 million)The Russian Academy of Science in 1995 reported civilian victims in the USSR, including Jews, at German hands totaled 13.7 million dead including 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide, 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. German captors killed an estimated 2.8 million Soviet POWs through starvation, exposure, and execution5. Poles(2.5 million dead)6. Homosexuals(5-15 thousand dead)7. communists/socialists(many but number not confirmed)8. dark skinned people(death and forced sterilization)9. mixed races-"The mulatto children came about through rape or the white mother was a whore," Adolf Hitler10. Jehovah’s Witnesses(2,500-5,000)
What is the Aryan Race?• misused by the Nazis to mean a so-called master race that originated around Germany• perfect Aryan was blonde, blue-eyed, tall and muscular.• The original term refers to a people speaking a Indo-European dialect.
Lebensborn-Fount of Life• The program aimed to promote the growth of "superior" Aryan populations by providing excellent health care and living conditions to women and by restricting access to those deemed “fit”• Houses were set up throughout Germany and many occupied territories• Many Lebensborn children were born to unwed mothers which helped lead to many rumors of rape.• Contrary to widespread rumors, women were not forced to have relations with Aryan Germans
Hitler’s Jewish Question 1933• Nazis "temporarily" suspend civil liberties for all citizens in 1933-Never restored.• The Nazis set up the first concentration camp at Dachau in 1933. The first inmates are 200 Communists.• Jews are prohibited from working as civil servants, doctors in the National Health Service, and teachers in public high schools. All but few Jewish students are banned from public high schools and colleges.
Nuremburg Laws 19351. Took away German citizenship from Jews thus making Jews second class citizens by removing their basic civil rights.2. established membership in the Jewish race as being anyone who either considered themselves Jewish or had three or four Jewish grandparents. People with one or two Jewish grandparents were considered to be mixed race. - eventually anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent was at risk in Nazi Germany3. Jews could only marry Jews4. No sexual relations between non-Jewish Germans and Jews
1936• Nazis boycott Jewish-owned businesses
Kristallnacht-1938 “Night of the Broken Glass”• On the nights of November 9 and 10, 1938, gangs of Nazi youth roamed through Jewish neighborhoods breaking windows of Jewish businesses and homes, burning synagogues and looting.• In all, 101 synagogues were destroyed and almost 7,500 Jewish businesses were destroyed. 26,000 Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps.• Jews were physically attacked and beaten and 91 died in the attack.
1938-Cont.• All Jewish children are expelled from public schools in Germany and Austria.• Nazis take control of Jewish-owned businesses.
1939• Hitler orders the systematic murder of the mentally and physically disabled in Germany and Austria• Jews are required to wear armbands or yellow stars
1940• Nazis begin deporting German Jews to Poland• Jews are forced into ghettos• Nazis begin the first mass murder of Jews in Poland
1941• Jews throughout Eastern Europe are forced into ghettos• In two days, German units shoot 33,771 Ukrainian Jews at BabiYar- the largest single massacre of the Holocaust• The death camp at Chelmno in Poland begins murdering Jews
1942• Nazi officials announce "Final Solution"- their plan to kill all European Jews• Five death camps begin operation in Poland: Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka, Belzec, and Auschwitz-Birkenau• Ghettos of Eastern Europe are being emptied as thousands of Jews are shipped to death camps.• The United States, Great Britian, and the Soviet Union acknowledge that Germans are exterminating the Jews of Europe.
1943• Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto resist as the Nazis begin new rounds of deportations. These Jews hold out for nearly a month before the Nazis put down the uprising.
1944• Hitler takes over Hungary and begins deporting 12,000 Hungarian Jews each day to Auschwitz where they are murdered
1945• Hitler is defeated and World War II ends in Europe.• The Holocaust is over and the death camps are emptied.• Many survivors are placed in displaced persons camps until they find a country willing to accept them.
1947• The United Nations establishes a Jewish homeland in British- controlled Palestine, which becomes the State of Israel in 1948.
Nazi Death Camps
Nazi Science Experiments• Nazi Science in the Camps• Mengeles Children - The Twins of Auschwitz Page 2• Josef Mengele was the chief physician at Auschwitz
Iosif Jughashvili/Joseph Stalin
Kellogg-Briand Pact• Afghanistan, Finland, Peru, Albania,• Guatemala, Portugal, Austria, Hungary,• Rumania, Bulgaria, Iceland, Russia, China Latvia, Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Denmark, Lithuania, Siam,• Dominican Republic, Netherlands, Spain, Egypt, Nicaragua, Sweden, Estonia,• Norway, Turkey, Ethiopia, Panama, Cuba, Liberia
Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
Japanese Invasion of Manchuria• What did this affair prove ? 1.The League could not enforce its authority. 2.A major power could get away with using force 3.An issue so far from Europe was not likely to attract the whole-hearted support of the major European powers in the League - Britain and France. 4. Great Britain was more concerned with it’s territories in the Far East than in the maintenance of law and order. 5. Other powers would see this as a sign that they too could get away with the use of force 6. The League also lost its most powerful member in the Far East and ultimately Japan was to unite with the two other nations that broke League rules - Germany and Italy.
Franklin Roosevelt vs Herbert Hoover
Good Neighbor Policy
Ethiopia invaded by Mussolini 1936• Italy lost its Ethiopia colony in Africa at the 1896 Battle of Adua• one of the worst colonial disasters of modern history• Feb. 23, 1935, Italy sends large forces into Ethiopia• Oct. 7, 1935, League declared Italy the aggressor
Italy/Ethiopia Invasion• Nov. 18 , 1935, Leagues sanctions begin -arms embargo, financial embargo, non-importation of Italian goods• Feb. 1936 - League could not agree on critical oil sanctions mainly because FDR refused - U.S. controlled 50% world oil trade• Feb. 29, 1936, FDR signed the 1936 Neutrality Act 1. mandatory arms embargo with warring nations 2. mandatory ban on loans to warring nations• May 5 - Italy occupied Addis Ababa - annexed all Ethiopia May 9
Generalisimo Francisco Franco and the Spanish Civil War
Munich ConferenceChamberlain: “Peace for our time”
Soviet-German Non-aggression Pact German ambassador von Ribbentrop and Soviet dictator Stalin laugh as Molotov signs the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact on August 23, 1939.
Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact• Russia gave raw materials to Germany in exchange for money and weapons• Both agreed to stay neutral if the other entered the war• Secretly agreed to invade and split Poland. Germany would get the western half and USSR the eastern half• Russia would get Finland, Estonia and Latvia and Germany would get Lithuania
How did the world react to this pact?• Shock• Poland was scared• Hitler thought it would force Great Britain and France to back out of their promise to help Poland if attacked
German invasion of Poland
William LuksenburgDescribes the first night of the German invasion of Poland • “Things began to change right the first night. The first night there were blackouts all over town. They would have a curfew. After dark, nobodys supposed to leave the house. The first memorable night is, was, when I...when some of our neighbors tried to...a young man tried to cross the street and he didnt realize just crossing the street, uh, would...would break, breach the curfew and a German soldier said, "Halt," and he kept on running. And he got machine-gunned all the way across, and he fell right in front of our house. So the Germans started yelling, all the men "Raus" [Get out], all the men out to help carry the body in and made me carry the body with four other persons. And because, the way he was machine-gunned, he was completely like cut in half. When I got home I was completely covered with blood, and I remember when I got into the house, my mother looked at me completely covered.There was something...such an awful thing to see first time. I was just absolutely covered with blood, and I always remember my mothers, uh, expression and my mothers fear and my mothers cry out when she saw me completely covered with blood and that was the first night, the first expression what was...We didnt know whats coming and it was a horrible thing, that first night.”
Blitzkrieg-Lightning War The Concept of Blitzkrieg.1. Airforce attacks enemy front-line and rear positions, main roads, airfields and communication centers. At the same time, infantry attacks on the entire frontline and engages enemy.2. Tank(panzer) units breakthrough main lines of defense and advance deeper into enemy territory. While following, mechanized units pursue and engage defenders preventing them from establishing defensive positions. Infantry continues to engage enemy for the same reason.3. Infantry attacks enemy flanks in order to link up with other groups to complete the attack and eventually encircle the enemy and/or capture strategic position.4. Mechanized groups go deeper into the enemy territory outflanking the enemy positions and preventing withdrawing troops and defenders from establishing effective defensive positions.5. Main force links up with other units encircling and cutting off the enemy.6. Goal was to achieve victory as quickly as possible
Sitzkrieg-The Phony War
Tripartite Pact is signed Axis Powers
Axis Powers• Main Powers: Germany, Italy Japan• Other Powers: Albania, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Thailand, Hungary
Allied Powers• Main Powers: Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, China, France• Latin America: Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Paraguay, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatamala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezueala
Allied Powers• Europe: Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Greece, Norway, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Poland, San Marino, Turkey, Yugoslavia• Africa: Egypt, Ethiopia, Liberia, South Africa• Asia/Other: China, India, Iran, Iraq, Mongolia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, New Zealand, Australia, Canada
German Invasion of Denmark and Norway
French and German Plans for the Battle of France 1940
Maginot Line• Maginot line - visual visit - thionville fortification system
Miracle of Dunkirk
German Advances until the Armistice-Battle of France: June 4-22, 1940
Vichy Goverment • Led by Marshal Henri Petain
Free French Underground • Led by Charles de Gaulle
Europe prior to the Battle of Britain-July, 1940
Winston Churchill"What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. I expect thatthe Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends thesurvival of Christian civilization. Upon it depends our own British life andthe long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury andmight of the enemy must very soon be turned on us now. Hitler knowsthat he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can standup to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may moveforward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world,including the United States, including all that we have known and caredfor, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age, made more sinister, andperhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Let ustherefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if theBritish Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men willsay, "This was their finest hour."
Nazi Goals1. Destroy the Royal Air Force(before invasion was possible-hopefully by 9-15)2. Attack and destroy the British Navy3. Attack British troops**Germany never succeeded in achieving #1**German bombers did so poorly against the RAF that they started bombing at night only**Great Britain was aided heavily by the radar and Ultra
Stages1. Preliminary raids on GB ships2. Stage 1: Attack the Royal Air Force3. Stage 2: Intensified raids on RAF4. Stage 3: Started attacking London and other cities
Battle of Britain
Royal Air Force
Luftwaffe• Messerschmitt Bf 109 • Herman Goering
British Propaganda Battle of Britain
Bases for Destroyers• Great Britain gave us 99 year leases on the following bases: • US gave Great• Antigua - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base Britain old British Guiana - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base destroyers: Jamaica - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base St. Lucia - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base Bermuda - Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base Newfoundland - Three Army Air Force Bases (Pepperell, Goose Bay and Stephenville), Naval Operating Base Argentia and numerous Marine and Army Bases and Detachments, 88 in total Trinidad - Naval Operating Base, Naval Air Station, Sea Plane Base, Lighter Than Air (Blimp) Base and Radio Station
1940 Election• FDR • Wendell Wilkie
FDR Signs the Lend-Lease Act
German U-boat Warfare• 1939 : 222 ships sunk (114 by submarine)• 1940 : 1059 ships sunk (471 by submarine)• 1941 : 1328 ships sunk (432 by submarine)• 1942 : 1661 ships sunk (1159 by submarine)• 1943 : 597 ships sunk (463 by submarine)• 1944 : 247 ships sunk (132 by submarine)• 1945 : 105 ships sunk (56 by submarine)
• THE ATLANTIC CHARTER-FDR/Churchill• Spring 1941• No territorial gain• No territorial changes without the peoples support form those countries• Self-determination• Free trade• Destruction of the Nazis and then setting up a peaceful governmet in Germany• Freedom of the seas• Abandon the use of force, disarmament and a stronger League of Nation
German Invasion of USSR• Final Plan for Operation Barbarossa
Scorched Earth Policy• Stalin demanded this of the Soviet troops as they retreated• What is this?
Operation Typhoon:Battle of MoscowSeptember 30 - December 5, 1941
• The Soviet Winter Counteroffensive December 6, 1941 - April 30, 1942