The Cold War 1945-1990US vs Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Definition• A political, strategic and ideological struggle between the US and the Soviet Union.• Spread throughout the world-Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America.
DiscussionCommunism vs. DemocracySocialism vs. Capitalism
Causes of the Cold War• Different political systems -US is based on democracy, capitalism and freedom -USSR is based on dictatorship, communism and control• Both thought their system was better and distrusted the others intentions• Stalin despised capitalism
Causes of Cold War• Stalin breaking his promise to allow free elections at the Yalta Conference• American fear of a communist attack(Red Scare) and USSR’s fear of a US attack• USSR’s fear of the atomic bomb• USSR’s actions in their German zone• USSR’s goal to spread communism around the world• This feeling of suspicion lead to mutual distrust and this did a great deal to deepen the Cold War
Yalta Conference Feb 1945• Before the end of the World War II, Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt met at Yalta to plan what should happen when the war ended. They agreed on many points:1. The establishment of the United Nations.2. Germany to be divided into four zones.3. Free elections allowed in the states of eastern Europe.4. Russia promised to join the war against Japan.
Post WWII/Cold War Goals for US• Wanted to promote open markets for US goods to prevent another depression• Promote democracy throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa• Stop the spread of communism
Post WWII/Cold War Goals for the USSR• Wanted to create greater security for itself -lost tens of millions of people in WWII and Stalin’s purges -feared a strong Germany• Establish defensible borders• Encourage friendly governments on its borders• Spread communism around the world
Key Terms• Iron Curtain Speech• Domino Theory(Effect)• Policy of Containment• Truman Doctrine• Marshall Plan• Brinkmanship• Massive retaliation/Mutual Deterrence/Mutual Assured Destruction• NATO vs. Warsaw Pact• CIA vs. KGB
Winston Churchill “Iron Curtain” Speech • “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow. Athens alone -- Greece with its immortal glories -- is free to decide its future at an election under British, American and French observation. The Russian-dominated Polish Government has been encouraged to make enormous and wrongful inroads upon Germany, and mass expulsions of millions of Germans on a scale grievous and undreamed-of are now taking place. The Communist parties, which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised to pre- eminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control. Police governments are prevailing in nearly every case, and so far, except in Czechoslovakia, there is no true democracy.”
Truman Doctrine • In 1947 the British were helping the Greek government fight against communist guerrillas. • They appealed to America for aid, and the response was the Truman Doctrine. • America promised it would support free countries to help fight communism. • Greece received large amounts of arms and supplies, and by 1949 had defeated the communists. • The Truman Doctrine was significant because it showed that America was prepared to resist the spread of communism throughout the world.
Marshall Plan • In 1947, US Secretary of State Marshall announced the Marshall Plan. • This was a massive economic aid plan for Europe to help it recover from the damage caused by the war. • There were two motives for this: – Helping Europe to recover economically would provide markets for American goods, so benefiting American industry. – A prosperous Europe would be better able to resist the spread of communism. This was the main motive.
• In 1948, the three western controlled zones of Germanys(US,France, UK) were united, and grew in prosperity due to Marshal Aid.• The west wanted the east to rejoin, but Stalin feared it would hurt Soviet security.• In June 1948, Stalin decided to try to gain control of West Berlin which was deep inside the eastern sector.• He cut road, rail and canal links with West Berlin, hoping to starve it into submission.• The west responded by airlifting in the necessary supplies to allow west Berlin to survive.• In May 1949, Russia admitted defeat and lifted the blockade.
Alger Hiss Trial• In 1948, Alger Hiss was accused of being a member of a Communist cell whose purpose had been to infiltrate the U.S. government• Hiss vigorously maintained innocence.• In 1949, the trial ended with a deadlocked jury- 8-4 in favor of conviction.• The second trial began on later in 1949, and ended two months later in early 1950,• The new jury found Hiss guilty
• Hiss conviction was later upheld by the Court of Appeals and the U.S. Supreme Court.• Hiss served five years in prison.• In 1992, a former Soviet intelligence officer said that Hiss was not a Soviet spy, but rather a victim of Cold War hysteria.
NATO• In 1949 the western nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to co- ordinate their defense against Russia.• NATO was a defensive alliance• This was the first peacetime alliance in US History• It consisted of: -America, Canada, Britain, France, Holland, Belgium Luxembourg, Portugal, Denmark, Norway and Italy• Still around today
McCarthyism• Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957) was a Republican Senator from Wisconsin• In 1950, he gave a speech where he claimed to have a list of 205 Communists in the State Department• No one in the press actually saw the names on the list, but McCarthys announcement made national news and caused panic throughout the country• McCarthy became one of the most powerful people in the US
Supporters of McCarthy1. Republicans2. Catholics3. Conservative Protestants4. Blue-collar workers5. Joseph and Robert Kennedy
McCarthy’s Downfall• In the spring of 1954, McCarthy charged the US Army had promoted a dentist accused of being a Communist.• For the first time, television broadcast allowed the general public to see the Senator as a blustering bully and his investigations as little more than a misguided scam.• In late 1954, the Senate voted to censure him for his conduct and to strip him of his privileges.• McCarthy died three years later from alcoholism.• The term "McCarthyism" lives on to describe anti- Communist fervor, reckless accusations, and guilt by association.
US Test Hydrogen Bomb-1952 • 1000 times more powerful than the Hiroshima atomic bomb • Set off on Bikini Island in the Marshall Islands
Eisenhower Embarrassment• Khrushchev:• “I must tell you a secret. When I made my first report I deliberately did not say that the pilot was alive and well… and now just look how many silly things [the Americans]” have said.
Thirteen Days • Be able to describe what happened in the crisis. • Be able to describe the different choices that Kennedy had to choose from in dealing with this threat. • Be able to explain the compromise that was reached to end the crisis. • Be able to explain how this crisis was an example of brinkmanship.
Kent St. Massacre• The Kent State Massacre occurred at Kent State University in the Kent, Ohio on May 4, 1970• The incident was the shooting of unarmed college students by the Ohio National Guard• The guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others• Some of the students who were shot had been protesting against the American invasion of Cambodia, which President Richard Nixon announced in a television address on April 30
• There was a significant national response to the shootings: hundreds of colleges and high schools closed throughout the US due to a student strike of four million students• The event further affected the negative public opinion over the role of the United States in the Vietnam War
• SALT I froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels• Limited new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM).• FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: RICHARD NIXON President of the United States of America FOR THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS: L.I. BREZHNEV General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU
Discussion• Why did the US win the Cold War?• Why did the USSR lose the Cold War?
1. We had close ties with our Allies and the USSR didn’t.2. China started siding with us after 1972.3. The Soviet economy was in shambles whereas the US’s was flourishing. 1. Huge deficit 2. High inflation 3. Corruption 4. Social problems 5. Shortage of basic needs(food, housing)
4. The strong anti-communist presidency of Reagan.5. Gorbachev’s willingness for change and reform. 1. glasnost and perestroika 2. admitted Soviet mistakes 3. took blame for the Cold War 4. communist system had failed 5. allowed Eastern Europe to do what they wanted6. Arms Reduction Talks 1. SALT, INF, Reagan-Gorbachev meetings
7. Soviet Mistakes 1. invasion of Afghanistan 2. ignoring social concerns 3. spent everything on military
Post-Cold War• In the 1990’s, the world seemed to be a much more peaceful place• President Clinton closed down numerous military• 9-11 caught the US off guard
Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary Join NATO-1999
Putin New Leader in Russia-1999- 2008 and 2012-??